2-3세기 교회법 문헌들에 나타난 교회 직제에 관한 연구
(A) Study on the Ministry in Canonical Literatures of the 2nd-3rd Century
Ministry Didache Traditio apostolica Didascalia Bishop Elder Deacon Deaconess Widow Virgin Community Apostolic fathers;
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This study is to comprehend and arrange Histories of the Ministry which generated and developed in Early Christian Community. Through this study, it should contribute to the church unity and the gospel mission that we pursue. Because of problems is caused by the Ministries which not belonged to the essence of church, right comprehension for the Ministry should contribute to get over those problems and to right-stand the church Christ's body. For the sake of this, this study make “Didache”, “Traditio Apostolica”, and “Didascalia”-representative Canonica among historical patristic literatures in 2nd-3rd century-significant material of the study. In chapter 2 of this study, it made a study of the Ministry which represented in Early Christian Community. It is the epoch of Jerusalem community, Antioch community and Paul community, church directors who settled down for the church community did not yet remarkably present, and the Ministry was directed by a call of apostles and blessing-wandering prophets and teachers. Futhermore, they analyzed and arranged the development of the Ministry in the Bible. And then wandering church directors decreased and local communities began to institutionalize, at the end of 1st century, the Ministry for local communities remarkably appeared. For this, Clement of Rome, The Shepherd of Hermas and The letter of Ignatius were backed up. In chapter 3, “Didache”, “Tradito Apostolica”, - were used for this study- and “Didascalia”-was known to Syria Instruction- were analyzed and arranged. “Didache” which is generally assumed that was formed in Syria Church in 100s set off in regulations for wandering prophets and teachers than rules for settled down church directors. In 210s, “Tradito Apostolica” which is formed in Hyppolytus community in Rome well shows characters of Rome local churches then. It clarifies the status of church that is owing to the Ministry and nomination through the confirmation. Episcopal institution is defined as the part that keep up the order of church and establish churches. The church then clergyman group such as the bishop, the presbyter, the deacon and The Ministries for service, i.e., leader, diaconate, widow and virgin and confessor , curer are taken. “Didascalia” which is assumed that is formed in since 250s is analyzed that is amended several times based on the teaching of 12 apostles by Syria local churches. According to Canon, it more in detail enumerates requirements for director and parts of director, important responsibility-comprehension of judgement, reproach and persuation is originated between the sins can be forgiven and the sins bring on a death. One of the most important of characters of this rule is the establishment of the deaconess-institution. Deaconess helped directors by performing the duties that widow had performed and vexatious duties to deacons. In chapter 4, based on analysises and arrangement about Early Christian Community, the New Testament and literatures of the apostolic Fathers, argued on a comprehension about the development of the faculty and the part of Early Church Ministry. Unlike wandering apostles, prophets, and teachers, the Ministry for local community is institutionalized, according to need, and for the legitimacy of such institutions and the activation of ones, Canon was amended and developed. Then, this article tried to show characters and faculties of Canon for the faculty of the Ministry of Canon, focusing on contents of 3 mentioned Canons. And Jesus's teaching has functioned as principles for the formation of Canon. Among the development of apostles and the Ministry, it could be studied a course that apostles, prophets, and teachers as wandering church directors declined and bishop, presbyters, and deacons as local community leaders. According to this, the church that is developed under wandering church directors become to settle down as the heart of local community and to develop. The middle part of 3rd century, one of the Ministry which is new was the deaconess-institution, it was activated in the Eastern Church-Greece, Asia Minor, and Syria-. In that place, the duty was widely accepted and gained reputations. And The duty was included to the ministry that is confirmed like deacons. Among their minister duty, it was included helping when baptize to woman, teaching woman, preaching the gospel to pagans, and teaching of baptism to Christian woman. They also visited ill woman, gave charities for orphans and widows, took the responsibility that guide seats and look after woman to observe the properieties. Futhermore, they performed as an intermediary between woman and ministers. According to this study, the problem of the confirmation for woman that is occurring in korean Churches today needs to approach in a view whether it is useful for constructing the church Jesus's body.