훈건 굴 및 굴 훈연잔사를 이용한 천연조미소재의 가공 및 품질특성
Processing and quality characteristics of a natural flavoring substance from the smoked-dried oyster and its scrap
훈건굴 훈연잔사 천연조미소재 수산가공학;
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Oyster ,Crassostrea gigas, has been cultivated massively in the South sea of Korea. This study was carried out to develop the effective use of the oyster and a natural flavoring material from the smoke-dried oyster and its scrap. We have examined the optimal processing conditions of the smoked-dried powdered oysters as a natural flavoring substance, its taste-active components, quality characteristics and food shelf-life during storage. The results are as following. 1. The optimal condition for processing the smoked-dried powdered oyster (OS-1) as a natural flavoring material was as followed. First of all, the raw shelled oyster is washed off with 3% saline solution, and then dewatered. The dewatered oysters were boiled for 10 minutes at 98℃, and smoked. The smoking process is carried out at initial stage for 1 hour at 50℃, then 4 hours at 80℃. The smoked-dried oysters were pulverized to 50 mesh, and packed with tea-bag or vacuum-packed in laminated plastic film bag (PE/PVDC/ CPP, 12 ㎛/15 ㎛/50 ㎛). Also the smoked-dried powdered oyster scrap OS-2 as a flavoring material was prepared. The condition for processing OS-2 shall be as following. The smoked oyster scraps were dipped in the oyster sauce for 10 minutes at room temperature, then dried with hot-air for 5 hours at 5O℃. The smoked-dried oyster scraps were pulverized to 50 mesh, and packed with tea-bag or vacuum-packed in laminated plastic film bag. 2. The moisture, crude protein, crude ash and volatile basic nitrogen contents of the smoked-powdered oyster OS-1 and OS-2 were 10.2%, 45.5%, 5.9%, 34.5mg/100 g and 10.8%, 47.9%, 8.1%, 38.5mg/100 g, respectively, and water activity was 0.50∼0.56. In fatty acid composition of the OS-1 and OS-2, the major acids were 20:5n-3 16:0, 22:6n-3, 18:1n-7, 20:1n-7, 14:0, 16:1n-7, 18:0, and 16:1n-9 in order. 3. The principal taste compounds of the OS-1 and OS-2 were free amino acids and related compound 395.6 mg/100g and 551.5 mg/100g, respectively, as well as betaine 164.6mg/100g and 214.9 mg/100 g, respectively, and small amount of fatal creatinine and TMAO. The contents of inorganic ions were rich in Na, K, P, Ca and Mg in order. In the free amino acids, major ones are taurine, glutamic acid, proline, alanine and glycine. The extract condition of the smoked-dried powdered oyster OS-1 in preparing instant soup was the most appropriate at 98℃ for 1∼5 minutes. 4. The composition of food components and quality characteristics were not significantly different between the OS-1 and OS-2. And organoleptic qualities were no difference in the OS-1 and OS-2, whereas these products showed good qualities for taste, odor and general preference than compared with the boiled-dried powdered oyster. Especially, the smoking and dipping treatment in oyster sauce showed flavor enhancement and prevention of lipid oxidation of the. smoked-powdered oyster products. 5. From the results of chemical experiments and sensory evaluation during storage, the vacuum packing method showed very good conditions for preserving the quality of products, and the quality of the vacuum packed the smoked-powdered oyster could be reserved in acceptable conditions for storage 150 days at room temperature. We may conclude from the results of this research that the present smoked-dried powdered oyster OS-1 and OS-2 had a good organoleptic qualities such as taste, odor compared with conventional flavoring substances, and it can be commercialized as a natural flavoring material.