農村型 共同住宅의 住居特性과 改善方案 硏究
(A) Study on the residential characteristics and improvement of the rural apartment housing
농어촌 공동주택 주거특성 건축공학 농촌주택;
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Apartment houses, taking root as an important residential type in today's rural communities, should also serve as an appropriate living place to people there. Therefore, it is necessary to develope a new residential development plan appropriate for the conditions and needs of rural areas, and a new housing type that can cope with the changes there. This paper aims to figure out the residential characteristics of the rural apartment houses, and propose a new plan to improve rural apartment housing. In this paper, both documentary survey and residential condition survey were used as research method. The scope of research targeted the 7 si & gun districts in Gyeongsangnam-do and 4 apartments at Yeongdong-gun in Chungcheongbuk-do. The contents of research dealt with the survey and analysis of the architectural characteristics of rural apartment houses and dwellers' attitude to and behaviour of using space. As a result, the residential characteristics of rural areas are as follows. First, rural apartment houses are generally adjacent to production and natural environments, and tend to be constructed in small complex of 50 households or less with the lack of convenient facilities. For economical reasons, they do not have a janitor, so they are not poorly maintained. Second, row house-styled apartments, constructed under the government support, should be equipped with individual storages for farm households. However, actually there is no work place or storage farming tools necessary for harm houses, undermining the living environments. So, we need a plan to improve this situation and active support from the government. Third, rural apartment houses are dwelled by residents with various occupations as well as farming households. The householders of farmhouses are mostly aged between 30's and 40's cultivating the controlled vegetable in greenhouses. And those farmhouses highly demand common storages and farm machines storages. Fourth, the preferred number of floors of apartments is 3 to 6, and the appropriate size of unit plane is 25 to 34 pyong. And their hopeful area to move into is suburb country and they prefer apartments. Fifth, people in farmhouses tend to install various shelves and cabinets indoors due to the insufficient space for storage. And they use the front balcony for clothes drying and storage, while using the back balcony for storage and housework support. Sixth, the external space is mostly changed into a storage for various stuff, and outdoor tap or bicycle site is installed. And as far as the internal space is concerned, the usage purpose is simply changed and there were trifle changes due to outworn facilities. Therefore, it is necessary to install storages within the apt. complex and secure a buffer zone where people can wash their hands before entering the houses. The application types and the improvement plans of rural apartment housing are proposed as follows. First, the basic directions of rural apartment housing plans are locality, ecology, tradition, community, and flexibility. And the ultimate goal of rural apartment housing plans is to improve the livability, community, and rurality on the basis of the basic direction of rural areas. Second, the types of rural apartment housing include farming, non-farming and combined types considering dwellers' characteristics. There are individual and mixed complex types in terms of apartment arrangements. The types of connecting living space with auxiliary space are horizontal and vertical connection types. Third, rural apartment housing should adopt the space components of auxiliary facilities including storages for agricultural products and farming appliances, common workshops, field attached to home, and washrooms in consideration of the conditions of rural areas different from urban apartment housing. Fourth, The arrangement of rural apartment housing should adopt a yard or inner court departing from uniform style. The number of floors and types should be planned for row house-styled apartments of 3 to 5 floors considering rural landscape. And the appropriate size of the complex is 50 to 100 households to activate the community among neighbors and secure convenient facilities. Fifth, the direction of planning the rural apartment housing of unit plan is to improve living conveniency in terms of securing the space for storing various stuff, considering flexible uses, introducing traditional elements, and using new types. Sixth, for more active apartment complex, the piloti should be applied to the bottom of residential block to make space organically connected and have openness, and should be planned for residents' community space. And the semibasement space can be planned for storage by means of the first floor and slant area of residential block. The rural apartment housing require much effort to take root as a new type of dwelling types. And it is also necessary to conduct continuous research on developing a model and unit plane type of the rural apartment housing in the future.