初等學校 敎科書에 언급된 樹木과 植栽된 樹木의 比較硏究
(A) Comparative study on trees expressed in textbooks and trees planted in elementary schools
초등교과과정 초등교육 산림자원학 수목 나무;
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This study analyzed whether the trees species expressed in elementary school textbooks and actually trees planted in elementary schools are fulfilling their educational functions. and examines which species of trees expressed in elementary school textbooks are actually planted in elementary schools, in order to provide basic materials to be used when selecting trees to plant in elementary school. Analyzed elementary school textbook 130books that elementary school students in the 7th curriculum are using, and investigated the trees had planted to locating 29 elementary schools at Jinju city. The results were summarized as follows: 1. The results of the study showed that 78 species of trees are expressed in elementary textbooks. Of these tree types, deciduous trees were the most prominent with 49 species introduced in textbooks. Deciduous trees were also expressed 227 times in elementary school textbooks, making them the most frequently expressed tree species as well. 2. In terms of grades, the most number of tree species were expressed in 6th grade textbooks, with 48 species of trees being introduced. The frequency in which trees were expressed in textbooks was highest in the 5th grade, with 117 appearances. The number of tree species and the frequency in which they appeared were largely concentrated on 5th and 6th grade curriculums. 3. The species of evergreen trees expressed most frequently in elementary school textbooks was Pinus densiflora, while the deciduous tree species most frequently expressed was Zelkova serrata, the evergreen shrub most frequently expressed the Thea sinensis, and the deciduous shrub most frequently expressed Rhododendron Spp. 4. In terms of subjects, the largest number of tree species appeared in Korean(speaking, listening, reading and writing) with 52 species being introduced. The frequency in which trees appeared in textbooks was also highest in Korean subjects, with 187 appearances. Aside from Korean, the express of trees occurred relatively frequently in experiment and observation subjects as well as subjects where trees were directly correlated such as elementary science, science/experiment observation and practical courses. 5. The trees expressed in elementary school textbooks were largely comprised of species that are easily found in our everyday surroundings, such as those used for landscaping. Deciduous trees were expressed most frequently in Korean and Music textbooks, where the trees adorned with the bright colors of autumn and flowers were depicted in novels, 0essays and song lyrics. Deciduous trees were also expressed frequently in science/experiment observation and elementary science subjects, most likely for their diverse blossoms, fruits and barks, and also because they are easily distinguishable and suitable for direct experimentation and observation. 6. The express of tree species in textbooks was concentrated mainly in the higher-level curriculum, where more forest trees than shrubs and more deciduous than evergreen trees were introduced. Because tree species expressed in textbooks are important educational materials, providing an uneven balance of information on the different types of trees may act as a deterrent in achieving a balanced level of education regarding trees. 7. 130 tree species were found to be planted in elementary schools. Deciduous trees were found to be the most prominent with 49 species, but the number of deciduous trees planted in elementary schools was the lowest with 1,998 trees, while evergreen shrubs, which displayed the smallest number of species planted in elementary schools with only 18 species, boasted the largest abundance in number with 12,884 trees planted in elementary schools. 8. An average of 37 tree species were found to be planted in elementary schools, with elementary schools established after the 7th Korean Curriculum such as Sunhak, Sinjin and Juyak elementary schools showing numbers smaller than the overall average, with 28, 25 and 25 species, respectively. The average number of trees planted in elementary schools was 997, with new elementary schools such as Sunnhak and Sinjin elementary schools showing a higher number with 1,717 and 1,950 trees respectively. However, the number of trees planted in Juyak elementary school was lower than the average, at 808. The average number of trees planted per 100㎡ of elementary school land was 8, while the newly established elementary schools of Sunhak, Sinjin and Juyak elementary school had more trees per 100㎡ than the overall average, with 15, 17 and 8, respectively. 9. Of the tree species planted in elementary schools, Juniperus chinensis var. kaizuka was the most frequently found of the evergreen trees, while Ginkgo biloba was the most frequently found of the deciduous trees, Buxus microphylla var. koreana the most frequently found of the evergreen shrubs, and Rhododendron Spp the most frequently found of the deciduous shrubs. 10. The reason that a large number of shrubs are planted in elementary schools is that shrubs of the same species are usually planted in a hedge, group or line planting method. Such methods of planting the same species of trees is necessary in order to enhance the aesthetic appearance of the schools. However, when considering the educational advantages, it is necessary to consider planting methods that enable the planting of a variety of trees rather than trees of the same species. 11. While there was a greater variety of trees planted in elementary schools than shrubs, a larger number of shrubs can be found in elementary schools. In terms of tree types, the ratio between evergreens and deciduous trees were similar, but there were a greater number of trees than shrubs. In the case of newly established elementary schools, the number of trees was higher than the overall average, but the number of species found in elementary schools was smaller than the total average. Therefore, it is necessary to diversify the types of trees found in elementary schools in order to provide a balanced education regarding the different types of trees. 12. A comparison of the trees species expressed in elementary school textbooks and the species actually planted in elementary schools showed that 78 species in 35 orders were expressed in the textbooks, while 130 species in 45 orders were found to be planted in elementary schools. Of the trees species expressed in elementary school textbooks, 44 species were planted in elementary schools premises, while 34 species were premises in textbooks but not planted in elementary schools. 13. While 78 species of trees are expressed in elementary textbooks, only an average 18 species were planted in elementary schools. Newly established elementary schools such as Sunhak, Sinjin and Juyak elementary schools had a fewer number tree species planted in elementary schools, with 13, 16 and 14, respectively. The tree species expressed in textbooks as well as those planted in elementary schools are important educational material, as they provide children with the opportunity to recognize different types of trees through continuous contact and experience. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the tree species expressed in elementary school textbooks when selecting the types of trees to plant in elementary schools.