伽藍의 시기별 經·鐘樓의 配置物性에 관한 연구
(A) Study on the Layout Characteristics of Sutra Tower·Bell Tower in Temples
경루 종루 가람 건축공학;
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This study dealt with the special feature, the meaning, the transfiguration process and cause of Sutra · Bell Tower, which was dealt with careless by past study. I tried to study the relation of corridor and main Buddhist sanctum and to classify the type. I classified the position relation on the layout into three types. The types are rear style, front style, and unsymmetry style. With the change of the times, I studied the change of layout style, the feature of layout style, and the factor of the change. Putting this study together, the result is the following. The First, feature about the layout style of Sutra·Bell tower. It was studied according to ambulatory, main Buddhist sanctum, and the position relation of Sutra·Bell tower. The result of studying the change of ambulatory construction is that it disappeared in the 12th century. The Position relation of Sutra·Bell tower in relation to main hall of Buddhist temple, a tower and main building of Buddhist temple is as follows. From early temple to 7th century, the position was the rear of main Buddhist sanctum. Afther that, It appeared at the front of main Buddhist sanctum until 12th century. The middle part of Goryeo, that is, in the 12th century, Dae Jang Jeon appeared and was arranged at the side of main Buddhist sanctum. In the late part of Goryeo, It was located at the rear of that. Eearly in the Josun, Bell tower became to have the function of hall and tall building's door. It was located in front of main Buddhist sanctum. Second, with the change of the times, the position feature of Sutra·Bell tower. With ambulatory construction, Sutra·Bell tower was located right and left symmetrically at the rear of main Buddhist sanctum. After that time, with the construction of a ground built up, Sutra·Bell tower was arranged at the right and left of ambulatory Southern end before main buddhist sanctum. And, Dae Jang Jeon appeared and was located at the right and left of main Buddhist sanctum. With the extincition of Sutra tower, Bell tower again appeared in the late of Goryeo. Eearly in the Josun, Buddhist sanctum four things were put before the center tall-building located in the front of main Buddhist sanctum. It became to have the punction of a hall and bell tower. By the base on arrangement relation and style in relation to main Buddhist sanctum and Sutra·Bell tower, I could classify them by the times. They are rear style, front style, and unsymmetry style. · The rear style as shape usually shown in 5∼6th century was located on the flat ground and was surrounded by the royal palace of temple as corridor. And Sutra·Bell tower was put at the back of main Buddhist sanctum. · Sutra · Bell Tower of Goguryeosaji was built in early 5th century. The period contacted with the corridor put at the back of main Buddhist sanctum was 6th century. In the middle of 6th century, the transaction with the Sung king of Beokje and the Muje of Chinesse Yang affected this time's Beokje temple. So, Beokje temple became to be touched with a hall and corridor. · The front style appeared usually in 7∼11th century. Imbankment was built on the inclined ground and a stage was made. Sutra·Bell tower was arranged in the front of main Buddhist sanctum. · Sutra·Bell tower which had been put at the rear of main Buddhist sanctum with a hall, appeared in the front of it. The cause is that follows. Tower belief (a saint's bones) was faint and the trend of belief was changed. So, the worship ceremony before the image of Buddha and the mean of the Sutra were emphasised. For reasons of these, Sutra·Bell tower was put in the front of main Buddhist sanctum. Also, In the ancient temple, the function of inner gate which had worship before the image of Buddha and the mean of hall was insufficient in a courtyard where ceremony was solemnised. To extend the place of ceremony, an inbankment was constructed on the inclination. On that, Sutra·Bell tower was put on the right and left end of southern corridor and center temple space was built. · Unsymmetry style was the style of 12∼15th century. A corridor and sutra tower got out of sight and Dae Jang Jeon came out. · Dae Jang Jeon was laid at the side of main Buddhist sanctum's right and left. In the 15th Century, tall building's door with a hall and a tall building with the function of bell tower·building were laid out in the front-middle of main Buddhist sanctum. The appearance of Dae Jang Jeon having the function of sutra tower accorded with the Dae Jang Keong Block's printing time. The Sutra and sutra block increased under the influence of Dae Jang Keong printing. The function and the mean of Dae Jang Jeon got important gradually. So, It was laid at the right and left of main Buddhist sanctum for its convinient use. Bell tower·building were not seen until the middle of Goryeo last period. I searched for the cause. The result was connected with the construction of temple. The temple bell's height was no more than 50 centimeters. It was coincide with the construction time of smaller bell. The size (height) of temple bell was built up in the form of smaller bell. The reason is as follows From the middle of the United Shilla, a temple was constructed in the depth of mountain under the influence of Esoteric Buddhism and Zen Buddhism. Its ceremony was also accounted little. The tendency to take a serious of inner self-reflection occurred. Because of Buddhist meditation giving the first consideration to meditation, the inner ceremony of Buddhist sanctum got important. Therefore, I came to conclusion that it was built in the form of rather smaller bell easy to install inside than large bell. So, In the Beokje Sung King 19 .years(541), Sutra·Bell tower and a hall were laid in the rear of main Buddhist sanctum under the influence of Chinese Yang country. · Buddhism Ceremony space was extended. Sutra·Bell tower that had been in the back of main Buddhist sanctum was located to the southest of main Buddhist saint's front corridor. This meant the function as a place of Buddhism ceremony. And, it changed into the form of ornament. The beginning of Josun dynasty, Buddhist sanctum four things were put on tall-building with a hall. It was changed into the ceremony place. Sutra·Bell tower was laid in the symmetrical form of right and left around the 12th century. Owing to the publication of Dae Jang Keong Block and development of printing technigue, Dae Jang Jeon began to appear. The right and left symmetry of Sutra·Bell tower was faded. I feel the lack of this thesis. That is, this was studied within the limits of Sutra·Bell tower and temple's the layout relation centering before time of Hideyoshi's Invasion of Korea. So, I will try to study totally the relation of each royal palace and enlarge of time range.