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Effects of summarization training on expository text processing
요약훈련 교재처리 Summarization training Expository text processing;
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of summarization training on the processing of expository text with description or comparison/contrast structure. Three summarization training conditions were treated: (1) summarization training with application of text structure, (2) summarization training with application of mapping, and (3) comparison group. Two experimental groups received text structure instruction or mapping instruction. Comparison group reread the text. Two experiments were designed and carried out in this study. Different types of expository texts were used in the two experiments: description structure for experiment I and comparison/contrast structure for experiment Ⅱ, In the two experiments a mixed, between-subjects, within-subjects, design was used. Two between-subjects factors were summarization training conditions (summarization training with application of text structure · summarization training with application of mapping · comparison group) and levels of reading comprehension ability (high · low). One within-subjects factor was testing time (immediate · one-week delayed). The criterion variables in the two experiments were scores of free recall, main idea comprehension, text comprehension, and summarization. All subjects of this study were 192 (96 in Experiment Ⅰ, 96 in Experiment Ⅱ) six-grade elementary students selected randomly on the basis of levels of reading comprehension ability. Stimulus materials used in Experiment I were two expository texts with description structure. One short text was composed of 20 sentences and 3 paragraphs. One long text was composed of 39 sentences and 6 paragraphs. On the other hand, stimulus materials used in Experiment Ⅱ were two expository texts with comparison/contrast structure. The lengths of both short and long text in Experiment Ⅱ were about same as those in Experiment Ⅰ. Main findings of this study were as follows: First, summarizing with application of text structure or summarizing with application of mapping improved main idea comprehension and summarization of expository texts which were organized on the basis of both description and comparison/contrast structure. In particular, summarizing with application of text structure showed more improvement in the expository text with description structure while summarizing with application of mapping showed more improvement in the expository text with comparison/contrast structure. Second, significant interaction effect between summarization training conditions and levels of reading comprehension ability appeared only in the summarization of long expository texts with comparison/contrast structure. That is, summarizing with application of text structure was more effective strategy for good readers while summarizing with application of mapping was more effective strategy for poor readers. Third, facilitative effects of summarization training was maintained during one-week delay. Fourth, summarizing variable showed significant correlations with other variables including free recall, main idea comprehension, text comprehension, and awareness of text structure. Therefore, Summarizing variable seems to be a significant learning strategy variable for expository text processing. These findings were discussed within the theoretical frameworks of text memory, depth of processing, and generative learning. It was suggested that further research should consider other types of text structures and other subjects such as middle school and college students.