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유기물 피복과 경운관리가 재래벼의 생산성과 미질에 미치는 영향 원문보기
Productivity and quality of korean native rice cultivars grown in different crop residue and tillage management

  • 저자

    이병진

  • 학위수여기관

    慶尙大學校 大學院

  • 학위구분

    국내박사

  • 학과

    응용생명과학부

  • 지도교수

  • 발행년도

    2004

  • 총페이지

    iv, 105p.

  • 키워드

    유기물피복 경운관리 재래벼 미질 응용생명과학부 작물학;

  • 언어

    kor

  • 원문 URL

    http://www.riss.kr/link?id=T10060178&outLink=K  

  • 초록

    Rice production farmers in Korea have confronted a crisis due to rapid changes in domestic and international environments. It has been becoming an ultimate policy for farmers to enlarge their farm size and to mechanize farming practices in order to cope with the serious shortage and decreased quality of old-aged farming labor in the rural area. So far, various policies for farmers have been approved to be detrimental to farmers by providing a cause of increased farmers' debt in Korea, where farm machinery and labor services became major direct rice production cost. Korean farmers are faced to the international pressure to open their agricultural market including rice, while the domestic prices of agricultural commodities are five-to ten-fold higher compared to those in the international market. Rice farmers, therefore, are situated to the turning point to decide whether the current rice farming be continued or abandoned. The other aspect of problems farmers confronted is to fulfill and satisfy the consumers' requirements for food safety and public awareness of environment. Considering all the situations, farmers are not allowed to adopt the current rice farming practices, which heavily depending on chemicals and farm machinery. Alternative rice farming practices are badly needed for farmers. The new rice farming practices are to be equipped with labor-saving, increased food safety, environmentally-friendly, and economically-sound. Korean framers have been familiar with high yielding cultivars, which suit for conventional cropping systems. However, these are not suited to new rice farming systems, such as no-till, high residue farming, systems in order to support sustainable agriculture, which has been a major issu of policy makers, consumer and rice farmers in Korea. For sustainable agricultural point of view, Korean native cultivars could be focused instead of recommended high yielding cultivars. In the preliminary experiment, 180 lines of Korean native rice cultivars were tested under conventional and low input conditions from 2000 to 2002, and four Korean native rice cultivars were selected and Daegubyeo, 26451, Aedal, Jaemjo and two recommended rice Dongjin #1, andI lmibyeo as a check cultivars were used in this study. Three new rice farming systems, i.e. (1)straw-mulched no-till rice cropping system (SMNTRCS), (2)straw-mulched no-till rice-vetch cropping system (SMNTRWCS), (3)conventional rice-barley cropping system (CRVCS) have been established andcompared with (4)conventional rice cropping system (CRCS). Physicochemical properties of soil including bulk density, air permeability, pH, O.M content, total-N, HN4^(+)-N, exchangeable cation, biomass-N and growth and development of rice, grain yield, yield components and grain quality of rice were intensively observed. The results are summarized as follows; 1. Physicochemical properties of the soil 1) Organic matter contents of soil were lower in CRBCS, higher in other cropping systems. 2) Available P content were lower in SMNTRVCR than other cropping systems. 3) NH_(4)^(+)-N contents increased during growth period. Microbial biomass NH_(4)^(+)-N and total N contents showed higher in SMNTRVCS. 4) Soil bulk density and air permeability of the surface layer increased in SMNTRCS and SMNTRVCS. 2. Characteristics of growth and development of Korean native lines. 1) Plant height and culm length of all cultivars at heading stage were the longest in CRCS and decreasedin CRBCS, SMNTRVCS and SMNTRCS in that order. Plant height and culm length of Korean native rice cultivars were longer than those of recommended cultivars. 2) Tiller numbers of Korean native rice cultivars were the highest in CRCS and decreased in CRBCS, SMNTRCS and SMNTRVCS in that order. Tiller numbers of Korean native rice cultivars were less than those of recommended cultivars but tiller numbers of Korean native rice cultivars, 26451, were significantly higher compared to those of recommended cultivars. 3) Flag leaves of Korean native rice cultivars werethe longest in CRCS and decreased in SMNTRCS, CRBCS and SMNT in that order. Second leaves of Korean native rice cultivars decreased in CRCS, CRBCS, SMNTRCS and SMNTRVCS in that order. Flagleaves of recommended cultivars were longer than those of Korean native rice cultivars and 2nd leaves of Aedal and Jeamjo of Korean native rice cultivars were longer than those of recommended cultivars. 4) Angle of flag leaves of Korean native rice cultivars were the largest in CRCS but the plant type was not significantly changed among the other cropping systems. 5) Root activity of Koreannative rice cultivars at heading stage were the highest in SMNTRCS followed by those in 10DAH and 20DAH in SMNTRVCS. Root activity of Korean native rice cultivars at heading were higher compared to those of recommended cultivars. 6) Dry weight of Korean native rice cultivars was the highest in CRCS and decreased in SMNTRVCS, SMNTRCS and CRBCS in that order. Dry weight of Aedal and Jaemjo of Korean native rice cultivars were higher than those of recommended cultivars. 7) Grain yield of Korean native rice cultivars were the highest in CRCS and decreased in SMNTRVCS, SMNTRCS and CRBCS in that order. Grain yield of a Korean native rice cultivar, Daegubyeo, was lower and those of Aedal and Jaemjo were higher compared to those of other cultivars. Spikelets and panicle numbers of Korean native rice cultivars were the highest in CRCS and ripened grain ratio was the highest in SMNTRVCS. Ripened grain ratio of Aedal, spikelets of Jaemjo and panicle numbers of a Korean native line, 26451, were noticeable compared to those of recommended cultivars. 8) Agronomic N use efficiency (ANUE) and physiological N use efficiency (PNUE) of Korean native rice cultivars were the highest in SMNTRVCS. Partial factor productivity for applied N (PFPN) was the highest in SMNTRVCS. PNUE and ANUE of Korean native rice cultivars were lower than those of recommended cultivarsand PFPN of Korean native rice cultivars were higher compared to those of recommended cultivars. 3. Quality of Korean native lines. 1) Grain appearance of brown rice of Korean native rice cultivars in SMNTRCS and SMNTRVCS were better than those in CRBCS and CRCS. Grain appearance of brown rice of recommended cultivars were higher compared to those of Korean native rice cultivars. Immature rice grain ratio of Korean native rice cultivars were higher throughout different cropping systems. Grain appearance of milled rice in SMNTRCS was better than those of other cropping systems. Korean native rice cultivars showed more white belly and broken rice than those of recommended rice cultivars. Grain length-width ratio of Korean native and recommended rice cultivars ranged from 1.6∼1.9. 2) Mg and K contents of Korean native rice cultivars were the highest in SMNTRVCS. Na content and Mg/K ratio of Korean native rice cultivars were the highest in CRCS. Na, Mg and K contents of Korean native rice cultivars showed higher compared to those of recommended cultivars. 3) Protein contents of all the cultivars investigated were the highest in SMNTRVCS, followed by those in CRBCS, and CRCS. Protein contents ofKorean native cultivars were higher than those of recommended cultivars. Amylose contents of all the cultivars tested were higher in SMNTRVCS compared to other cropping systems. Amylose contents of the cultivars tested ranged from 16 to 22 percent, where those of Aedal and Jeamjo were significantly higher than those of the other cultivars. 4) Alkali digestibility values (ADV) of milled rice grain, tested in 1.2% potassium hydroxide for 23h at 30℃, were the highest varietal difference ADV of cultivars grown in CRBCS were the highest and the lowest in CRCS.Among the cultivars tested Dongjin #1 and Jaemjo showed significantly higher ADV than other cultivars. 5) Maximum and final viscosity of milled rice grain were the highest in CRCS and decreased in CRBCS, SMNTRCS and SMNTRVCS in that order. Maximum and final viscosity of Korean native rice cultivars were lower compared to those of recommended cultivars. Maximum viscosity of milled rice were the lowest in CRBCS, while the minimum viscosity of Korean native cultivars were lower compared to those of recommended cultivars. 6) Eating quality of milled rice grain, shown as Toyo values, was the highest in CRCS and the lowest in CRVCS. Eating quality of Korean native cultivars were lower compared to those of recommended cultivars, however, the eating quality of a Korean native line, 26451, was not significantly different from those of recommended cultivars. 7) Hardness of cooked rice were the lowest in CRCS and steadily increased in CRBCS, SMNTRVS and SMNTRCS in that order. Hardness of cooked rice of three Korean native cultivars,Daegubyeo, Aedal and Jaemjo, were lower compared to those of recommended cultivars. Hardness of cooked brown rice were the lowest in SMNTRCS and the highest in SMNTRCS. The hardness of cooked brown rice of Korean native cultivars were higher compared to those of recommended cultivars. In conclusion, physicochemical properties of paddy soil have been significantly improved in both SMNTRCS and SMNTRVCS. Two Korean native cultivars, Aedal and Jaemjo, were better performance in growth, grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency. Grain appearance and gelatinization characteristics of recommended cultivars showed better performance compared to those of Korean native rice cultivars, however, inorganic chemicals, K, Mg, Ca and Na, and protein content of rice grain were higher in Korean native cultivars compared to those in recommended cultivars. Thus, the new rice farming practices tested in this study enable farmers to save production cost by reducing direct rice production expenditure, inorganic nitrogen fertilizers, farm machinery and labor cost. The improvement of physicochemical properties of the paddy soil and the fitness to the serious labor shortage in rural area and better economics being achieved by these new farming practices fully justifyfor Korean rice farmers to adopt the the practices as alternatives in the changing farming environment.


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