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게르마늄 처리에 따른 작물의 생육반응 및 게르마늄 흡수 특성 원문보기
Characteristics of growth response and germanium absorption of crops in soil treated germanium

  • 저자

    이성태

  • 학위수여기관

    慶尙大學校 大學院

  • 학위구분

    국내박사

  • 학과

    농화학과

  • 지도교수

  • 발행년도

    2004

  • 총페이지

    viii, 108p.

  • 키워드

    게르마늄 작물반응 농화학;

  • 언어

    kor

  • 원문 URL

    http://www.riss.kr/link?id=T10060186&outLink=K  

  • 초록

    Germanium, a metal element with an atomic number of 32, is well known to be a constituent of semiconductors such as diodes. On the other hand, it is said that organic germanium shows therapeutic efficacy. Organic germanium is used mainly as a therapeutic agent and additive for health food. Organic germanium was reported as antitumor, induce interferon, antivirus, antiathritic activity and an immunological modifier. Recently, effective organic germanium is produced by the use of microbes or algae. The purpose of this study is to produce agro-products that contained organic germanium. The experiment was carried out through germanium analysis in the soil and crops, and the culture conditions were set to measure the increment of the amount of germanium absorbed in rice plant, lettuce and water celery. First, the characteristics of germanium absorption and growth of crops were investigated by different germanium concentrations. Soil pH, nitrogen levels, soil textures, silicate fertilizer application amount and germanium types were treated with culture conditions to measure the amount of germanium absorption. Lastly, germanium types absorbed in rice plant, lettuce and water celery were evaluated whether it is inorganic germanium or organic germanium through dialysis method. The results were summarized as follows ; The interference elements were Zn(Ⅱ), Pb(Ⅱ), then Ge recovery rate were 90% and 92%, respectively. Interference effect was higher in the mixed element than in only one element. In the extraction method, sonification has higher amount of extract than shaking. To compare germanium extraction rate in soil treated with 10 mg/kg Ge, 5 different soil extractants such as 0.1N-HCl, 1N-HCl, 0.1N-HNO_(3), 0.005M-DTPA and 0.05M-EDTA were used. Extraction rate was highest with 2.26 mg/kg in 0.005M-DTPA extractant, whereas in 0.1N-HCl extractant, the germanium yield was only 0.60 mg/kg. Germanium extraction in different soil textures by 0.1N-HCl was 1.08 mg/kg in sandy loam whereas extraction rate was low with only 0.36 mg/kg in clay loam. For the decomposition of plant samples, concentrated HNO_(3) was used. As a result, germanium recovery rate was more than 81.3%. To investigate the germanium content in paddy soil, samples were collected in 310 paddy soils taken at 19 areas in Gyeongnam including, Ulsan and Busan. Germanium content of paddy soils were analyzed in different topographies, soil types and soil textures. Average contents of germanium were 0.24 mg/kg in Gyeongnam, Masan, Jinju and Hadong areas were relatively high with 0.30 mg/kg above. Germanium contents in different topographies have no differences with 0.26 mg/kg in the Dilluvial plain and 0.22mg/kg in the Mt.-foot slope. Germanium contents in different soil types were 0.27 mg/kg in well adapted soil and 0.23 mg/kg in poorly drained soil. Germanium contents in different soil textures were 0.27 mg/kg in silt loam and 0.23 mg/kg in sandy loam. The values between Ge and pH in paddy soil was negatively correlated with r=-0.172^(**) whereas Ge and Zn was positively correlated with r=0.288^(**). To determine germanium content on agricultural products in the field, cereals, vegetables and fruits were analyzed. Germanium contents of agricultural products were high in the order of cereals>vegetables>fruits. Ge contents were 0.068 mg/kg and 0.048 mg/kg in brown rice and polished barley, respectively, while those of persimon and pear were 0.011 mg/kg and 0.023 mg/kg. In case of vegetables, germanium contents were high in the order of leaf vegetables>root vegetables>fruit vegetables. Germanium contents were high with 0.062 and 0.065 mg/kg in lettuce and young radish, respectively. To analyze the germanium contents in medicinal plants, samples were collected from 19 crops(Angelica keiskei, Ligusticum chuanxiong, Panax ginseng, Atractylodes macrocephala, Angelica dahurica, Liriope Platyphylla, Platycodon grandiflorum, Agrimonia pilosa, Angelica acutiloba etc.) at Hamyang areas. Angelica keiskei, Ligusticum chuanxiong, Panax ginseng and Atractylodes macrocephala were relatively high with 0.10 mg/kg above. The experiment on germanium concentration was carried out to find the optimum concentration on the germanium absorption and growth of rice plant, lettuce and water celery. In the case of rice plant, germanium concentration was treated with 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg Ge in the soil. The higher the germanium treatment in the soil, the higher the germanium absorption in straw, husk and brown rice, but yields were decreased with the increase of germanium phytotoxicity. Rice plant growth was inhibited by germanium phytotoxicity it terated with more than 2.5 mg/kg Ge and necrosis spots were observed in the rice leaf blades. When rice plant was cultured on soil supplemented with 2.5 mg/kg Ge, germanium content in straw, husk and brown rice was 103.4, 30.2, 3.02 mg/kg, respectively. The germanium content in plant was high in the order of straw > husk > brown rice. Most of the amino acids were increased with the increase of germanium treatment, besides, total amino acid contents also increased. In the case of lettuce, germanium concentration was treated with 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 mg/kg Ge in the soil. The higher the germanium treatment in the soil, the higher the germanium absorption in lettuce, but fresh weights were not decreased. When lettuce was cultured on soil supplemented with 8.0 mg/kg Ge, germanium content was 1.27 mg/kg. In that time, germanium contents at different organs were 0.65 mg/kg on inner leaf and 1.59 mg/kg on outer leaf. It treated with more than 62.5 mg/kg Ge, water celery was observed to cause inhibition of plant height and fresh weight increment with germanium phytotoxicity. Germanium efficiency was highest at 2.4% when treated with 62.5 mg/kg Ge and the content was 371.6 mg/kg. When water celery was cultured on soil supplemented with 50 mg/kg Ge, germanium contents in stem and leaf were 59.4, 36.2 mg/kg, respectively. To enhance germanium absorption in rice, lettuce and water celery under different conditions such as soil pH, amount of nitrogen and silicate fertilizer application, soil texture, and Ge series, germanium treatment was 5, 10 and 50 mg/kg in soil. The grain yield of rice at the soil pH 6.6 with enhancement culm length, no. of panicle and no. grain/panicle was highest at 19.0 g/pot, while the content of germanium was highest at the soil pH 6.0 at 5.06 mg/kg. The growth of lettuce with enhancement leaf width and leaf area was highest at the soil pH 6.0, while the content of germanium was lowest at the soil pH 7.0 at 3.34 mg/kg. The fresh weight of water celery was lowest at the soil pH 5.1 at 47 g/pot while content of germanium was lowest at the soil pH 7.0 at 10.42 mg/kg. The content of germanium in brown rice with different N fertilizer application was not different from all treatments except for nontreatment. The content of germanium in N application based on soil testing was 4.64 mg/kg. In the case of lettuce and water celery, the growth was decreased at the N nontreatment while the content of germanium in plants was highest at the N application based on soil testing. The content of germanium in brown rice, lettuce and water celery with different soil texture was the highest in sandy loam at 8.34, 2.76 and 35.2 mg/kg, respectively. The content of germanium in rice plant with silicate fertilizer application was decreased in straw and husk, while its content of brown rice was not different from all treatments. The content of germanium in brown rice was 5.67 mg/kg in silicate fertilizer nontreatment and 5.93 mg/kg in Ge 5.0 mg + silicate fertilizer 3 g/kg treatment. With different Ge series, the content of germanium in brown rice at GeO_(2)treatment was highest at 4.90 mg/kg, while its content in lettuce and water celery was highest at the Ge-132 treatment at 1.69 and 24.17 mg/kg, respectively. The method of dialysis was selected to evaluate the organic germanium or inorganic germanium in brown rice, lettuce and water celery. Germanium absorbed in rice plant, lettuce and water celery is said to be organically bound germanium as evidenced by no difference in the germanium content after dialysis. The organic germanium in brown rice, lettuce and water celery was over 99%. Therefore, it is possible to make organic germanium in crops using inorganic germanium


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