영미 신체문화의 발달과 남성다움의 理想
(The) Ideal of Manliness in the British and American Physical Culture
신체문화 남성다움 체육학;
- 원문 URL
Today, a wide variety of sports can be found in Korean society. Amongst these sports; badminton, tennis, volleyball and basketball are examples of these sports originally imported from abroad. On the contrary Taekwondo and Ssireum(Korean Style wrestling) are heritages of Korean traditional physical culture. However most sports in Korea have been organized previously in Great Britain and the United States although they have become an integral part of Korean society. Despite this fact there has been a lack of research on foreign sports history. Therefore, the objective of this research is to reveal the background in which British and American Sports rapidly organized and diffused into nations around the globe. This study has been derived from previous research and analysis on the backgrounds in which British and American sport developed in from the 1800s to the 1914. More specifically, the study has its focus on the ideologies that affected the development of physical culture. In order to achieve the objectives of the study, the following issues were addressed. Firstly, the general process of the development of British Physical Education and sports. Secondly, the general process of the development of American Physical Education and sports. Thirdly, to define the ideals of muscular Christianity and Manliness. Finally, to assess the influence of the ideals of muscular Christianity and Manliness on the development of British and American physical culture. To reach a conclusion for the issues listed above, 19th Century sources such as research papers and journalistic documents, youth magazines and literature, all related to British and American sports history were referred to and analyzed. The results are as summarized below. Firstly, modern British Physical Education and Sports were rapidly organized during the mid 19th century and the early 20th century. The ideologies serving as catalysts in the development were Athleticism, Amateurism, Professionalism and Imperialism. Among these ideologies Athleticism had close links with Imperialism and the concept of Muscular Christianity. As a result 19th century Public Schools perceived Sports as an important aspect of education. Moreover, hunting, horse riding, tennis, cricket and badminton all evolved around the nobles and gentry class. Sports such as tennis, rugby and cricket mainly developed with Amateurism as its foundation. On the other hand sports such as football developed out of the ideology of professionalism and were diffused into the working class. Secondly, the development of modern American physical culture can be chiefly divided into two ears, the first being pre civil war (1861∼65) and the second, post civil war. Before the Civil War, in the mid 18th century, American football became a prominent sport in American universities and in upper classes; golf, hunting and cricket became popular features of the time. However, during the colonial periods where the emphasis lay on assiduity and morals; qualities required for colonization and with strong influences from the Puritan culture of the time, the development of Physical Education and sports was hindered. In reflection of this, after the Civil War there was rapid development of sports in United States. A range of sports including gymnastics were implemented into school curriculums and a competitions were held between state schools. In terms of social sports, sports mainly evolved around the upper class and progressed from those gambling sports to organized sports. Thirdly, one of the most critical factors in the speedy development of sports in British and American society was the ideal of muscular Christianity. At the nucleus of this ideology was the concept of Manliness'. It introduced the notion that a manly youth was a courageous individual with the ability to sacrifice his own life for the collective. Therefore a collective mentality of team spirit was emphasized and to achieve this mentality, sports activities were promoted. Fourthly, the ideal of Manliness played a pivotal role in the development British sports. In novels by G.A Henty; 'BOP', 'Chums', 'The Captain' heroic adventure tales of upper class public school boys are well illustrated. Furthermore, Thomas's Hughes' novel 'Tome Brown's Schooldays', through the protagonist, 'Tom Brown', the author depicts the masculine model of the contemporary period as a sportsman. As a result, youth literature of the time popularized the idea of sports in the younger generation and rowing, cricket and football all developed quickly as they were seen as manly sports at the time. Finally, the ideal of Manliness made an equally large impact on the development of American sports as it did on its British counterparts. In the late 19th century, the puritan influence considerably lessened and Protestantism became a stronger religious force on American society. As a result, physical culture became more wide spread. The middle-class parents of the late 19th century demanded their children to be Masculine Achievers as well as Christian Gentlemen and to possess the appearance of a masculine primitive. These notions of masculinity accumulated men to be active, dynamic, independent, powerful, aggressive individuals with initiatives who would not accept deceit. In order to rear these qualities in the younger generation, aggressive and physical sports were thought to be vital and as a result American Physical culture accelerated in its development.