공립 인문계고등학교의 '학교붕괴'현상에 관한 문화기술적 연구
(The) Ethnographic study on the 'school collapse' situation of a public academic high school
인문계고등학교 학교붕괴 학교문화 교육학;
- 원문 URL
This Study intends to find an alternative of a desirable schooling by the researching and analysis of 'School Collapse' situation. On the late of 1990s, the schooling of S. Korea has been criticized. The points of criticism in schooling were not to work well in teaching itself. The crisis of schooling which has been described as 'School Collapse' situation has become the talk of all. The reports of the press about it were moved to study on this problem. At first, 'School Collapse' situation was acknowledged as only a anti-culture of school. Increasingly, the controversy of it has been prevailed. Furthermore, the situation was apprehended in the school which this research worker has been in the service of. Thus I decided scientifically to inquiry out the solution. To find out the solution, preceding studies were examined in various ways. Most presented only a state of the affairs on the superficial viewpoint. In addition, they approached in the abstract ways. They had not an actual situation of the problem. Thus, on the basis of reflections of preceding which were not reflected the actual situation of present schooling and on the standpoint of a high school teacher who is with schooling, this study has been investigated. The subject of this study is a Injae High School, a public academic high school, which has been on duty by this researcher. This school was chosen by the reason public academic high schools has had a serious 'School collapse' situation compared with private institutions according to the opinions of a local community. To catch the situation, I focused on the course of understanding and interpreting the world of daily life which has been, in the viewpoint of looking from with in, developed in circumstance of 'School Collapse' at Injae High School. In this process, the ethnographic study method of participant observation and ethnographic interview was used. Besides the ethnographic, literature studies were added focused on the analysis of contents. This method was useful in solving problems at the real situation. The following important three factors were found by describing observation from Sep. 1999 to Aug. 2002 at Injae High School. Thus focused observation was focused on these. First, the one-sided educational policies of governments which were unfolded on the pretext of an educational reform. Most researchers of this item analyzed the causes of it into the educational policies of governments which were one-sided and pushing. I also agree with these analyses. A series of educational policies which had the introduction of performance tests, developing an academic aptitude and talent programs and abolishing trial examinations have carried out without considering the circumstance of schooling. These actions made a confusion in the realization of schooling. The schooling in S. Korea have suffered from anomie between the educational policies in the pursuit of idealism and the circumstance of schooling in the real situation. Eventually these conditions of anomie gave rise to the 'School Collapse' situation. Second, the culture of teachers who were indifferent to school affairs and student behaviors, egoistic and make it their business to do noneducational acts. The causes of these cultures were the educational policies related to teachers which led them to promote their position rather them to pay attentions to school affairs and student behaviors. In addition, an anti-culture to protest and personal attacks on teachers caused them to have indifference of their students. Moreover, these actions of these teachers about this problem made them responsible in 'School Collapse' situation. I convince that without self-reflections and change of consciousness in these teachers, we can not help having limit in the realization of a desirable schooling. Third, the anti-school culture of students who act in school. The primary factors of 'School Collapse' situation are the low cultures of merry making which have been formed in school, a serious state of low scholastic ability and the behaviors of protest and hostility on their teachers. The one-sided educational policies of governments made a confusion in the view of value. The mottoes of permitting to enter any universities with having only one talent made it impossible for teachers to test properly. This led them not to have an authority in teaching. An educational reform has asked for the structural reform of society. But the present reform of schooling has not accompanied with it. For all that, in this unchangeable structure of society, the problems of schooling could not be kept from discarding. We must find the solution which can be found in a realizable alternative. In this point of view, through participant observation in educational policies, teacher cultures and student cultures which were the most necessary factor to overcome 'School Collapse' situation, this researcher came up to these conclusions. First, to overcome 'School Collapse' situation, making a plan of educational policies which are on the basis of researching and analysis in the present situation through the participant observation of the reality of schooling are necessary. And when we make a plan of educational policies, the opinions of practical teachers must be reflected. Therefore the system to solve these problems must be established. Second, the system which enable teachers to encourage to have attention for their students and cope with the situation of egoistic culture have to be suggested. And teachers must come to their senses to deal successfully with the situations of 'School Collapse' which were given rise to themselves by their self-reflection. Third, the conducts of students must be controled by the setting up permissions and limitations of student cultures. Thus they come to have a sense of responsibility. We must pay an attention to the opinions of teachers who stand on their opinions in 'School Collapse' situations because of the student-oriented educational policies. Therefore it is urgent that we must harmonize the protection of personality and self-control in students with the effective schooling in the school. Four years have passed since 'School Collapse' situation came to the main topics in schooling. The problem has not found a solution. Lately 'School Collapse' situation have often not been raised. These attribute insensibility and indifference rather than the effort of students, teachers and educational authorities. The educational authorities succeeded in being buried in oblivion, not in solving 'School Collapse' situations. Schooling is the national action which has been supported by constant attentions and taking quite a interest. The educational authorities have to decide upon a positive educational policy through the researching and analyzing problems in 'School Collapse' situation. This study as a scientific researching of 'School Collapse' situation aims at improving the problems in schooling. I wish to use this study in the way of self reflection at schooling.