중·고령자 재취업 결정 요인에 관한 연구
(The) Determinants influencing on reemployment of the elderly
중고령자 재취업 취업활동 사회복지;
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In order to determine which factors are critical to the reemployment of middle-aged and old people, this empirical study used a data from 'The 4th Annual Korean Labor Panel(2001)'to determine which factors could determine their reemployment. By classifying the factors critical to their reemployment into human capital factor, labor market factor and systematic factor respectively, and subdividing whole subjects into middle-aged(45 to 54 years old) and elder group(55 to 64 years old), logistic regression analysis is implemented in empirical manner, which treats the status of reemployment. The results of analysis can be outlined as follows: First, it was found that significant human capital factors in statistical level included age, gender, academic experience, number of family member and so on, while significant labor market factors included employment type of ex-workshop, service years, pay and the like. And it was found that unemployment allowance was a significant systematic factor in statistical level. The results of analysis showed that academic experiences had more or less negative effects on the possibility of reemployment as contrary to the results of foreign previous studies. Here, we can consider academic experiences in relation to the matter of human resources supply/demand - a structural attribute of labor market - rather than the value of human capital. Secondly, the most critical factor to determine the possibility of reemployment was the type of employment, followed by gender, unemployment allowance and pay. On the contrary to the results of foreign previous studies, these results of analysis showed that the value of human capital had little impact on reemployment, while labor market factors showed considerable effects. In other words, the higher pay level and regular job in employment led to more significant possibility of reemployment in statistical level, which implies that Korean labor market considers high productivity or capability of labor as a benchmark to judge one's labor power according to his(her) previous pay level or employment type. Thus, if a person was employed in a regular job of ex-workshop, he(she) is more likely to be reemployed in another regular job. For the people in irregular employment, the condition of labor market allocated by employment type and gender had more or less influence on the type of reemployment of job seekers. Thirdly, the fact that unemployment allowance had significant effects on the possibility of reemployment indicates that it goes on positive way to its original goal to facilitate reemployment. In terms of different points between these analysis results and those of previous studies, it is concluded that unemployment allowance doesn't have so negative impact on labor motivation, because requirements for unemployment allowance, specified date of allowance, etc. in Korea are designed in far more rigorous ways than those in advanced countries so as to prevent any inverse inducement from labor motivation. However, there were not any significant results of analysis in terms of the specified date of allowance. Accordingly, in the aspect of long-term effects of unemployment allowance, it is required to readjust allowance level and date to the effective level so that unemployment allowance may help the unemployed and their family live in minimum stable condition for certain period and facilitate their reemployment. Through the results of analysis herein, this study may give the following suggestions: First, it is important to consider and take reasonable countermeasures for any discrimination in reemployment by age, gender, employment type, etc., not based on rational ground. Furthermore, it is also required to take reasonable measures for middle-aged or old unemployed manpower with high academic achievements.