霽月堂 宋奎濂의 生涯와 經世思想
(A) Study on Jeweoldang, Song Kyu Ryeom's Life and Governing Thought
제월당 송규렴 경세사상;
- 원문 URL
Jeweoldang, Song Kyu Ryeom(1630 - 1709) was from Hoedeog in Chungcheong province who was a bureaucrat and Confucian scholar in the late period of Choseon. He was a famous person called as three Songs of Hoedeog with Uam, Song Si Yeol and Dongchundang,Song Jun Gil. The reason why Song Kyu Ryeom's previous generation lived in Hoedeog was that the one of the Songs of EunJin, Song Myeong Eui fixed himself there after he had become a son-in-law of the one of the Hwangs of EuiJin, Hwang Su. And Song Kyu Ryeom's 8th forefather, Ssangcheongdang(雙淸堂), Song Yu moved into BaegDal Village and his family had thrived since that time. So people called there as the village of the Songs and called the Songs of EuiJin as Hoe Song. Song Kyu Ryeom experienced ByeongJaHoRan(丙子胡亂) and the fall of the Ming dynasty of China at his boyhood. And he spent his adolescence in the mood of carrying out the military expedition to conquer the Ching China. He passed the state examinations(司馬試) and became the official of government at 19 years old. But he could not work long as the official of government because of the change of the political situation was due to YeSong(禮訟). And he had lived tough life, experiencing his teacher, Song Si Yeol was killed and Song Jun Gil was usurped his official position. However he tried to keep his faith under any difficult situations. Song Kyu Ryeom learned the basis of scholarship and set up the direction of scholarship through Song Si Yeol and Song Jun Gil. Both of them were Kim Jang Saeng's lineal scholars and Kim Jang Saeng was also lineal scholar of Yi Yi, the master of Kihohakpa(畿湖學派). The scholars of Kihohakpa respected moral Confucianism succeeded from Confucius, Mencius, JuJa(朱子). Therefore Song Kyu Ryeom's scholarship was directly connected to the scholarship of Kihohakpa and succeeded moral Confucianism since Confucius. Song Kyu Ryeom's official life was mainly the activity as a EonGwan(言官). But he could not work long as the official of government under the situation of the YeSong Era(禮訟期). When Song Si Yeol was exiled to Namhae and Song Jun Gil was usurped his official position in 1675(SukJong, 1st year), he could not strongly redress that because of his mother's dissuasion. However he resigned his office on the pretext of his mother's severe illness. Even though he could not strongly support Song Si Yeol at GabInYeSong, he threw in his lot with Song Si Yeol. Especially he presented a memorial to the king, positively redressing Song Si Yeol and Song Jun Gil in 1667(SukJong, 3rd year). He was not a weak official, but he was a official, devoting to his parents and regarding faith between teacher and pupil as an important thing. Song Kyu Ryeom's Governing Thought was found in many kinds of memorials presented to the king, his official activities, his enlightening activities in local areas, and so on. He had the same Governing Thought with his teacher, Song Si Yeol and Song Jun Gil and insisted reform for the people. He mentioned the people's poverty, the reduction of compulsory labor, the prohibition of buying rice, and the relief policy in the Saheonnabgyeomjinminsaso(辭獻納兼陳民事疏) and insisted the reform about them. Also he mentioned discomfort and difficulty of compulsory labor, neighbors' plunder and the extortion of taxes by petty town officials in the Sadaesagangyeomjinsipyeso(辭大司諫兼陳時弊疏) and requested the reform about them. And he especially emphasized politics of the principles of royalty and moral politics to king. He thought the king needed strong morality for reform. Also Song Kyu Ryeom especially emphasized the importance of Hyangeumjurye(鄕飮酒禮)·Hyangsarye(鄕射禮)·Reading Method(讀法) at the country districts. Hyangeumjurye is that confucians in the country districts invited a learned and aged man as the guest of honor and drank alcohol and had a feast with him at Hyanggyo(鄕校) or Seoweon(書院). As they respected a kindhearted person and supported an old man, they became to have manners. Song Kyu Ryeom had the self-governing system of the country districts as a governing thought. It was well expressed in the HoedeogHyangyag(懷德鄕約) that he wrote the preface. Song Si Yeol made composition the preface of HoedeogHyangan(懷德鄕案) and Song Jun Gil wrote it. And Song Kyu Ryeom wrote the preface of Hyangyag attached to the Hyangan. Repairing of HoedeogHyangan and making of HoedeogHyangyag were done together that year. Song Kyu Ryeom played an important role for making them with two songs. The reason is that Song Kyu Ryeom was called one of three songs later might be his this work. Hyangyag was the rule that were made for educating the country districts and working together by Hyangweon(鄕員). HoedeogHyangyag had the same purpose. The preface of Song Kyu Ryeom's Hyangyag seemed to support the preface of Song Si Yeol's Hyangan. But it was based on the Confucius ideal ; Susin(修身), Jega(齊家), Chiguk(治國), Pyeongcheonha(平天下). He regarded the basis unit of education as the country districts. And his governing thought was that the education of one country district became the education of one nation. The education from Hyangyag was very important for both a country district and a nation. Song Kyu Ryeom studied and taught students at Jeweoldang and Chwibaegjeong at his old age. He gave up a official and built Jeweoldang for only studying scholarship. And he built Chwibaegjeong as a classroom in Miho(渼湖) by the Keum River in 1701(SukJong, 27th year). The two places showed that he wanted to live in the nature and he worked hard to teach students. His activities in the country districts showed his governing thoughts that he tried to reform a nation through reforming a country district as spreading Hyangyag.