「노인과 바다」에 나타난 극기정신 연구
Stoicism in the old man and the sea
노인과 바다 극기정신 영미문학;
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This thesis aims to study Stoicism as revealed in Ernest Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea. Although Hemingway started writing nihilistic works as a representative writer of the Lost Generation group, he in his later years wrote a work entitled The Old Man and the Sea of which main subject is the stoic ideas as described in many literary writings. I intend to investigate Hemingway's stoicism by analyzing awareness, actions and milieus of Santiago, the hero of the novel. To carry out this purpose, this study is composed of three chapters. In Chapter I, the purpose and the method of the study is stated. To understand the importance of stoic ideas, Hemingway's change of interests from nihilism to stoicism is surveyed in this chapter. In Chapter II which is the central part of this study, stoic attitudes of Santiago are examined, the hero's stoic virtue is mentioned, and symbols encouraging him spiritual strength such as the vast sea, Manolin, DiMaggio and lions are analyzed. Finally in Chapter M, the concluding remarks are made. During his lifetime as one of the greatest writers in the world, Ernest Hemingway. tried to display the sincere matter of life and death through his writings. He was a man of courage and activity. He experienced heroically the real areas of struggle and hardship personally. Among his works, The Old Man and the Sea is a novel of the method of how we can meet this difficulty in the real areas of our own lives. He gave us a good model of the Undefeated Spirit of Stoicism through the main character, Santigo in The Old Man and the Sea. This novel expresses the sincere life, an attitude which a man should cultivate throughout his life, in spite of hardships and difficulties. In solving the vision of man and life we cannot but consider the struggling life of Santiago as the hero of this novel. There are many affirmative and negative views about Hemingway. Generally, these views arise from the characters and behaviors of Hemingway's heroes in his works. Santiago himself is no exception. To solve this problem, I would like to clarify the quality of Santiago's characteristics and his mind attitude which he shows in the presence of difficulties. Santiago has determined and strong will power. In The Old Man and the Sea, Santiago has attained his ethic point of the undefeated spirit of a man. In a sense, Santiago seems to be Hemingway's alter-ego and the very picture of Hemingway himself. That is to say, his value of life is told through the behavior of Santiago. Santiago, even if a humble fisher-man, has a very attractive personality. He may be called a noble humanist who has done the best within his reach to attain his own moral ideal as a man. Hemingway deals with the sincere matter of life and death consistently as his theme, stoicism in this work. The novel tells that the writer teaches us to have a brave, undefeated spirit through our code of conduct. It is said, "A man can be destroyed but not defeated." We have learned that such a triumph over death and difficulties can be got by a firm belief of stoicism. Santiago's moral attitude consists of his tries and efforts to attain the endless undefeated spirit. Compared with the great nature, a human being is a humble, feeble creature who can be defeated with ease, but in a real meaning of victory or defeat, the most important factor is his endless struggle and rigid attitude to do his best in the presence of great difficulties or great danger.