東北亞經濟統合方案에 관한 硏究
A Study on the Economic Integration in Northeast Asia
8, 201 p.
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The tendency toward regionalism is expanded and deepened worldwide, and economic integration organizations and regional communities such as the ASEAN, the APEC, etc. are daily increased, not to mention the EU and the NAFTA which have already been established. Recently, the economic integration in Northeast Asia has been actively discussed by China, Japan and Korea in the main. In this study, free trade agreements among China, Japan and Korea and the Council of Northeast Asian Economic Cooperation are presented as specific means of the economic integration in Northeast Asia and the establishment of common identity for the promotion of such economic integration is mentioned. It is hoped that a Northeast Asian economic community may be established as long-term vision of economic cooperation, in Northeast Asia. On account of the confrontation, discord, disparate system, and different economic standard and power among Northeast Asian countries, it is difficult to establish the Northeast Asian economic community within a short period of time, as shown in the peculiarity of the economic cooperation in Northeast Asia. In the EU, the establishment of the European Economic Community was not easy. It was established through difficult courses, such as the formation phase, stabilization phase, crisis and stagnation phase and adjustment phase. In the present EU, there also remain diverse discord factors. First of all, the partial and functional economic cooperation in fields in which there is a possibility of that cooperation shall be actively promoted in Northeast Asia. In addition to trade or investment, joint development projects of energy and diverse cooperation projects in the field of environment and logistics shall continue to be promoted by diverse entities, such as private individuals, enterprises, local governments, etc. The partial cooperation in economy among Northeast Asian countries shall not be treated lightly because it forms the foundation of establishment of the Northeast Asian economic community. After the functional economic integration is spontaneously achieved, there shall be deepened courses according to phases of economic integration. In such courses, there shall be the progress toward the formal economic integration phase in which any deepened discussion on issues occurring in Northeast Asia is possible by establishing the Council of Northeast Asian Economic Cooperation. There is any discussion that the Council of Northeast Asian Economic Cooperation (CNAEC) shall be established under an existing international organization, such as the ASEAN+3 or the APEC, but there is any necessity of establishing an independent consultation organization in order that the Governments of three Northeast Asian countries may consult with each other on issues occurring in the course of economic cooperation in Northeast Asia and other principal economic issues pending among them and deal with those issues in depth. In order to cope with any worldwide tendency toward regionalism, FTAs come to the fore in East Asia. In particular, China and Japan negotiate with countries or international organizations of East Asia for the conclusion of FTAs competitively. China and the ASEAN concluded the FTA, and Japan belatedly offers a challenge to hegemony in East Asia by promoting FTAs among countries of East Asia to which the Korea-Japan FTA is extended. The mid-term or long-term objectives which shall be accomplished in view of the realization of the Northeast Asian economic community are FTAs among China, Japan, and Korea. The economic scale of three countries of China, Japan and Korea is 90% of that of East Asia, and FTAs in which one of them does not participate may be meaningless. Because FTAs among countries of East Asia can be concluded in actuality only after those among China, Japan, and Korea are concluded, the latter has the important meaning. However, the prospect that the conclusion of FTAs among China, Japan, and Korea is not easy due to differences in economic development standards, disparities in political and economic systems, past history issues, hegemony competition between China and Japan, vulnerability of agriculture of Japan and Korea, etc. is the ruling opinion. In addition, there exist numerous restrictive factors as the conclusion of FTAs among China, Japan, and Korea can depend on political, economic and diplomatic strategies of America on which Japan and Korea have much security reliance. In order to conclude FTAs among China, Japan, and Korea by overcoming such restrictive factors, it shall be clearly stated at home and abroad that those FTAs are promoted not under a defense logic to cope with the trade bloc, but under any other positive opening logic that they are promoted as part of trade liberalization on the level of globalism, FTAs among China, Japan, and Korea as well as those with countries in regions other than Northeast Asia shall be positively promoted, and it shall be aware that interests and effects of FTAs among China, Japan, and Korea occur not only in Northeast Asian countries but also in countries in other regions. In addition, if such FTAs are promoted on the basis of a logic of trade liberalization without any purpose of acquisition of hegemony included in international political power relations among China, Japan and Korea, the FTAs are able to contribute to the economic cooperation among Northeast Asian countries as well as to the relaxation of tension therein. If these endeavors are continued, Korea is able to assume the role of connecting the Northeast Asian economic bloc to global economy. However, any failure to come to a national agreement on the opening and trade liberalization in Korea remains as a burden to Korea which will assume the role of a mediator and a promoter hereafter. A community has centered on the political or economic integration in the EU, which researches on and copes with diverse discord factors discovered in the course of the recent expansion of member countries. In the early stage, the EU was based on the traditional (historical) commonness of countries of Western Europe, but the cultural diversity accompanied by the recent accession of emerging countries of Eastern Europe and Africa along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea causes any discord, therefore the EU comes to create the unity from the diversity by inducing cultural exchanges among each other after acknowledging the national diversity. Northeast Asia is a region in which there exists the traditional (historical) commonness as well as the heterogeneity. In Northeast Asia, there has been continual war in 80 years of modernization and different points of view in civilization thought of adopting the products of Western civilization. In Northeast Asia, the tribute trade based on the thought that China is the most civilized and central country in the world has been carried on chiefly in the exchange of civilization and economy, and Western nations have depreciated Asian culture and have divided the Asian Confucian capitalism from their private capitalism since the economic crisis. In the latter half of 2001, Korean popular culture has enjoyed explosive popularity among Asian young persons. It is analyzed that the popularity of Korean culture is caused by the similarity of Asian culture, the nonviolence of Korean culture which contrasts with the culture of developed countries and an extensive anti-Japanese feeling around Asia. However, a Korean popular culture boom due to which the exchange of Korean popular culture becomes active in the Asian cultural area is the course of expansion thereof and that of creation of new identity. As the Asian new identity of a Korean popular culture boom was created, the promotion of economic integration in Northeast Asia and the Northeast Asian economic community can create diverse identities. As shown in EU's endeavors to research on its identity, the diversity of each country shall be recognized, the culture of each country and the understanding of its history shall be exchanged, and the unity shall be explored, in the course of systematizing and deepening the economic integration or community. Practical strategies shall be planned : it shall be widely known that the cooperation and common prosperity in the Northeast Asia region can contribute to the peace of that region and the world, the solidarity of Northeast Asian countries shall be achieved for the purpose of realizing the Northeast Asian community in each field of politics, economy, society, culture, science, technology, etc., and opening systems of encouraging the participation of countries in regions other than Northeast Asia shall be required. In front of diverse changes in the 21st century, Korea is in the center of Northeast Asia in which there is the acute confrontation among the Great Powers. The high economic growth and development of Northeast Asian countries has become an important axis of the world economy. In circumstances that the ultranationalistic EU and NAFTA are steadily expanded under the current of globalization and regionalization, Northeast Asia fails to get out of the wall of nationalism and cultural intolerance. There shall be changes in Northeast Asia. In the hope of establishing the ultranational economic community, Korea shall prepare for the future while it makes exchange and cooperation with other Northeast Asian countries step by step for cooperative Northeast Asia.