韓日 兩國의 도깨비담과 바케모노담에 관한 比較 硏究 : 類型別 構造 分析을 中心으로
(The) Comparison between Dokkebi and Bakemono in the folktales of Korea and Japan
敎育學科 外國語敎育 日語專攻
한일 도깨비담 바케모노담;
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I have studied the typical folk tales related to Dokkebi and Bakemono between Korea and Japan by classifying according to <winning a Dokkebi bat>,<being rich through Dokkebi> and <Dokkebi confrontation>. There is no exact concept for Dokkebi in Japan, but there are similar characters such as Oni, Gappa, and Tangu. I standardized the terms as a Bakkemono to make a easier and more objective comparison and have tried to find out the similarities and differences of the folk tales, classifying by a theme, a story and a structure into <winning a Dokkebi bat>,<being rich through Dokkebi> and <Dokkebi confrontation>. In addition, I have also studied the meanings of motif and core words in each folk tale. First, there is a subtle difference between <winning a Dokkebi bat> patterns while they are similar in charaters, plot, and development of the story as a whole. They are divided into two : One is a <neighbor animosity> organized with a repetition and contrast, emphasizing the promotion of virtue and reproval of vice and the other is a <brother animosity> themed with a filial piety. When it comes to the number of folktales which is contrast construction, a <neighbor animosity> and <brother animosity> are almost same in Korea, but the number of <neighbor animosity>type is much bigger in number in Japan. However, the role of Dokkebi and Bakemono is that if he were good, he would get the fortune and if he were bad, he would get the punishment regardless of the judge of fortune and punishment. The folk tales of the two countries have different ways of expressions and stories due to the political and social environments. <winning a Dokkebi bat> type played a part as a instructive textbook emphasizing the good and bad, filial piety and impiety, and brotherliness and had something with the social customs. In other words, Korea had many conflicts between brothers because of the first son's inheritance while Japan had such interest in neighbors that it was reflected in the stories. Moreover, we can assume the social atmosphere and human relationship of the two countries through the terms 'exchange' and 'security' used in <winning a Dokkebi bat>. Korean folk tales were based on the confucian spirit while Japanese ones were Buddism that later rooted into people's religion. 'Old house', the important word in folk tales was not only a place that human and alien coexisted but a place where Dokkebi and Dakemono played some parts, and mountain was a divine place where the god of mountain stayed. But it was just known for a place which was related to farming and the world of the dead in Japan. Night was time when people could contact the different world and things , be free from a static time and it played an considerable part in generation and derivation of folk tales. There are a few more similarities between Japan and Korea. First, in <being rich through Dokkebi> type, the main character won what he wanted to get, but the other man lost something, being honest enough to tell his weak points. Second, most of main characters were ordinary people who desired a rise in their position. Third, Dokkebi and Bakemono were excellent in making a fortune, but stupid enough to be manipulated by humans. The object of scariness were horses to Dokkebi and tobacco to Bakemono, and there were many kinds of identities of Bakemono and scary things in Japanese folk tales. We could see that there was a material diversity in Japanese folk tales, and the identities of Bakemono were very related to the regimen of people. We also could recognize that agriculture was the principle of economy in both Korea and Japan through the symbol of richness such as feces of dogs, of horses and of chickens. The transforming was very various to see that Dokkebi was a man in <What's scary?>in Korea, while it was woman or old man in <What's fear?>in Japan. The similarity in story was that human was always a winner and Dokkebi or Bakemono only to fail out of his stupidity. <Dokkebi confrontation> is a type that the main character could not be rich unless he confronted and it is sort of mixture of <being rich through Dokkebi> and <Dokkebi benefactor>. 'Poor' in these kinds means not only economical poverty but also pure minds that end up winning richness due to their honesty and belief in god. It was intended by the initiater that the poor achieved the victory against the rich in <Dokkebi confrontation> and <winning a Dokkebi bat> types of folk tales and it seemed that there was a psychological assistance in poor people. Bakemono was affected by many factors, and one of them was likely to be decentralization. As seen above, I have made a comparison and checked the folk tales which have similar stories and plot in Korea and Japan. Eespecially in this report, I have compared and analyzed the motif and key words and found out the similarities and differences between Korea and Japan, which was meaningful. However, it has to be more researched that all entertainments in Heiyan Age was important factor to determine a social rank, and 'Uchi''Soto' had something to do with 'izime', a social problem in recent Japan. In addition, while horses in Korea are regarded as keepping a devil away, horses in Japan standed for Oni or meant Oni itself without the function of keepping a devil away. It also needs to be researched that why Korean folk tale had only one name of Dokkebi compared to Japanese various names.