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독거노인의 죽음 태도에 관한 질적 연구 원문보기
Research on the posture of the elders who live alone to death

  • 저자

    김경아

  • 학위수여기관

    동아대학교 정책과학대학원

  • 학위구분

    국내석사

  • 학과

    사회복지학전공

  • 지도교수

  • 발행년도

    2004

  • 총페이지

    v, 73p.

  • 키워드

    독거노인 죽음태도 노인복지;

  • 언어

    kor

  • 원문 URL

    http://www.riss.kr/link?id=T10065551&outLink=K  

  • 초록

    죽음은 누구에게나 찾아오는 생의 과업이며 보편적으로 노인들만의 전유물은 아님에도 불구하고 인간 발달의 단계로 볼 때 노년기에는 임박해 있는 죽음에 가장 가까이 접해 있으며 피할 길 또한 없는 것이 기정사실이다. 가족제도의 핵가족화와 가족생활규범이 변화되면서 독거노인가구는 증가하고 자식세대의 번영만을 위해 한평생을 살아온 노인세대들은 노후를 준비하지 못한 채 독거노인으로 전락하는 예가 많아졌다. 특히 독거노인이 홀로 맞는 죽음이라는 가까운 미래 다가올 상황들이 삶에 대한 태도는 물런이고 죽음을 받아들이는 태도에까지 영향을 미치고 있다. 본 연구는 독거노인이 죽음 현실을 어떻게 조망하고 있는지 재가 독거노인 15명을 대상으로 심층면접과 참여관찰법에 의한 죽음에 대한 태도를 살펴보고 이를 유형화하였다. 또한 각기 다른 양상을 나타내는 죽음 태도를 독거노인의 생애사적 특성과 죽음 준비에 따라 어떠한 관계를 보이는지를 기술하였다. 질적 연구에 의한 독거노인들의 죽음에 대한 태도에 대한 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫번째, 부정적 해방의 죽음 태도의 독거노인은 생애사적 특성으로 ① 고달픈 삶 ② 원만하지 못한 자녀관계 ③ 질병으로부터의 해방 ④ 고독 ⑤ 약한 사회적 지원을 보였고 죽음에 대한 준비로 ① 죽음을 공유할 사람의 부재 ② 자손 번창을 위한 장지 마련 ③ 자식에게 남기고 싶은 유산으로 나타났다. 두번째, 부정적 체념의 죽음 태도의 독거노인은 생애사적 특성으로 ① 힘들었던 삶 ② 단절된 자녀관계 ③ 질병으로부터 오는 체념 ④ 고독 ⑤ 약한 사회적 지원을 보였고 죽음에 대한 준비로는 ① 죽음을 공유할 사람의 부재 ② 장묘에 대한 담담함 ③ 가치없는 유언을 특징 지었다. 세번째, 소극적 긍정의 죽음 태도의 독거노인은 생애사적 특성으로 ① 평탄한 삶 ② 단절된 자녀관계 ③ 질병에 대한 관심 ④ 고독 ⑤ 깊이없는 신앙심을 보였고 죽음에 대한 준비로는 ① 죽음을 공유할 사람이 존재 ② 화장을 선호 ③ 생의 정리 ④ 가치없는 유언을 보였다. 네번째, 적극적 긍정의 죽음 태도의 독거노인은 생애사적 특성으로 ① 수긍할 줄 아는 삶 ② 원만한 자녀관계 ③ 고독 ④ 신앙생활 ⑤ 원만한 사회 활동을 보였고 죽음에 대한 준비로는 ① 죽음을 준비할 대상이 존재 ② 매장 선호 ③ 의미있는 유언 ④ 생의 정리 ⑤ 수의 준비를 보였다. 다섯번째, 긍정도 부정도 아닌 양가적 죽음태도의 독거노인은 생애사적 특성으로 ① 자수성가하여 원점으로 돌아간 삶 ② 단절된 자녀관계 ③ 질병 ④ 고독 ⑤ 단절된 사회관계를 보였고 죽음에 대한 준비로는 ① 죽음을 준비할 대상이 존재 ② 화장 선호 ③ 수의 준비를 나타냈다. 이상의 연구결과를 종합해 볼 때, 죽음을 적극적으로 받아들이는 긍정의 태도가 가장 이상적인 죽음 태도라 제시되었고 독거노인이 바람직한 죽음 태도를 가질 수 있도록 전문화된 사전 교육 프로그램의 개발과 학습이 필요하며 무연고 독거노인을 위한 상주나 조문객 대행, 장례 예식 진행 등 상·장례의 지원 체계가 강화되어야 할 것으로 생각된다.


    There will be nobody who does not know death is one of processes of life which calls on everybody in the world. Definitely, it can be said that death is never exclusive belongings of older people. Seeing from phase of development of human being it is a settled matter that, in the old age, death is gradually and inevitably imminent to the elders. These days, as we experience in our daily life, lots of changes have been socially brought about in our country. Among them, trend toward the nuclear family of family system, variation of principle of family life, etc. can be referred to as typical examples. As time passes, it looks like phenomenon of variation is deeper and deeper. accordingly in connection with this social phenomenon, the population of the elder who live alone shows increasing tendency. Briefly summarizing the characteristic of lots of the elders of the present age, they show they fell into a circumstance living lonely without any provision for their old age, because they devoted their life to work only for the sake of prosperity of their children. At this point, especially, it can be felt that the situation of the near future to come near that is called death seriously have influence not only on the posture to their living but also on the posture to accept death. In this research, at first, 15 old peoples who live alone were chosen as an object of research and researcher investigated their posture to living and the posture to death they received, using depth-interview method and participation observation method, and analysed how the characteristics of career in lifetime and the provision against death were from the view of the posture to death. The results obtained are as follows. Firstly, among the elders who live alone, in the case of the elders whose posture to death was negative liberation, their characteristics of career in lifetime were ① exhausted living, ② not amicable relation to their offspring, ③ liberation from diseases, ④ loneliness, ⑤ weak social support. Their provisions for death were that ① there were not a few who owned death together, ② preparation of burial ground which is believed to be a apparatus to make flourish of posterity, ③ they hoped to leave some inheritance to offspring. Secondly, in the case of the elders whose posture to death was negative renunciation, their characteristics of career in lifetime were ① hard living, ② relation severed from their offspring, ③ severance due to disease, ④ loneliness, ⑤ weak social support. Their provisions for death were that ① there were not a few who own death together, ② oppressive opinion to burial ground, ③ worthless testament left. Thirdly, in the case of the elders whose posture to death was half-hearted affirmation, their characteristics of career in lifetime were ① placid living, ② relation severed from their offspring, ③ interest in diseases, ④ loneliness, ⑤ not deep passion to faith. Their provisions for death were that ① they had close people who own death together, ② they prefer cremation to burial, ③ arrangement of whole living, ④ worthless testament left. Fourthly, in the case of the elders whose posture to death was positive affirmation, their characteristics of career in lifetime were ① affirmative living, ② amicable relationship to children, ③ loneliness, ④ religious life, ⑤ amicable social activity. Their provisions for death were that ① there were objects which help to arrange death, ② they prefer burial to cremation, ③ they left significant testament, ④ they arranged their whole living, ⑤ They showed interest in preparation of garment for the dead. Fifthly, in the case of the elders whose posture to death was not affirmative and also not negative, their characteristics of career in lifetime were ① a living in which they returned to the origin after making their fortune by their own efforts from naught, ② relation severed from their offspring, ③ experience of pain due to diseases, ④ loneliness, ⑤ relation severed from society. Their provisions for death were that ① there were objects which help to arrange death, ② they preferred cremation to burial, ③ They showed interest in preparation of garment for the dead. From the results mentioned above, following conclusions could be drawn. Among various postures, affirmative posture which received death positively was most desirable from the every point. Therefore, it was thought that, in order that the elders who lived alone could have this desirable posture, not only development of specialized program and its education but also vicarious execution of principal mourner and/or caller for condolence for the elders who live alone and reinforcement of support system for funeral are required.


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