갑오개혁기~대한제국기 성균관에 대한 고찰
(A) Study on the Change of Sungkyungwan in the Gap-o Reform Period
갑오개혁 대한제국 성균관 역사교육;
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During Gap-o reform period, a system reform to modernize political, social system was driven in Chosun. Owing to the Gap-o reform, feudal social position system was abolished, and official appointment system was reformed, and a modern education system was introduced. The introduction of modern education system and new official employment method brought change to the phase of Sungkyungwan that had maintained the status of the highest state-run education institution. Most of the studies on Sungkyungwan mentioned it briefly as one of traditional institutions in the process of discussing the introduction of new education system, or the studies have discussed it centering on its modernization process shown in 'Sungkyungwan Gwanje(institution)' published in 1895 or in 'Sungkyungwan Confucian department regulations'. The basic historical materials for this thesis were 'Gojong-Sunjong true record', 'Gwanbo(Official Gazette)', 'Ilsungrok', and 'Seungjeongwon diary'. Besides these, for Sungkungwan related materials during Gungukkimucheo active period, 'Gongmun pyeonan' that is a compiled written copy of official documents between Takji-amun(Finance Ministry) and other amuns(ministries) was chiefly used. Among these, the details of the request of expenses that had been sent from Hakmu-amun(Education Ministry) to Takji-amun(Finance Ministry) were analysed as a base. In this thesis, an analysis was done over the period from 1894 July when Gap-o reform was underway to 1905 when the Confucianism promotion policy of the Empire of Great Han was professed. In Chapter 1 the change of Sungkyungwan led by the faction for civilization was studied. In Chapter 2 the movement to return to previous Sungkyungwan against the faction for civilization was studied. Through these it was meant to clarify that the change of Sungkyungwan around the Gap-o reform was not a simple change according to a system reform but was closely related with political power change. And it was confirmed that the conservative trend in Chosun society after the Gap-o trend had an influence on Sungkyungwan, too. The introduction of new education system and new official selection method brought a new change in the phase of Sungkyungwan that had maintained the status of the highest state-run education institution. Before the Gap-o reform, Sungkyungwan had a role of sacrificial rite and maintained the ideological symbol as the head temple (center) of Chuchahak (a Confucian philosophy). When Park Young Hyo backed by Japan returned to politics, Sungkyungwan was pushed by pragmatic education and shrinkage of its function and status as traditional education was accompanied. However by the 'Confucianism Promotion Edict' promulgated by Gojong in 1899 April, new phase was developed for Chosun Confucians including the Confucians at Sungkyungwan. Gojong reinforced the ideal and education of Confucianism through his royal edict. Amid this change, the Confucians at Sungkyungwan meant to stress the ideological side of Sungkyungwan so that their positions might be guaranteed. They did not strengthen the practical educational function of Sungkyungwan to compete with new and modern educational institutions. In short, after the Gap-o reform the conservative inclination of the Sungkyungwan was reinforced, and the changing look of Dongdoseogi (Eastern Tao, Western Vessel) at the time of 'Sungkyungwan Confucian department regulations' enactment gradually deteriorated. If the reformative inclination of Sungkyungwan could have developed, we can imagine that Sungkyungwan could have taken the role of an axis for traditional culture comparable to modern, western civilization in the areas of education and culture in the era of the Empire of Great Han.