高麗 석곽묘와 토광묘 硏究 : 混在分布遺蹟을 中心으로
(A) Study of Stone lined tomb(石槨墓) and Pit tomb(土壙墓) in the Koryo Dynasty
고려 석곽묘 토광묘 사학;
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It is well known that there is a certain difference in patterns of making tomb between Royal family, Aristocratic class and common people in Koryo Dynasty. Tombs can be classified as structure like follow, stone chamber tombs, stone coffin tombs, stone lined tombs and pit tombs. Since end of 1990's, all out-full scale excavating technique introduce to area where a program for land development proceed. For this reason, plenty of Koryo tombs are discovered as like Kyungsangbuk-do Sang Ju Chung-ri and Chungcheongbuk-do Chung ju Yungam dong. With these outcomes of excavations, we can make more new and concrete research results independent of existing documental resources, sporadic excavation and materials from North Korea. On this progression of study, it is found out that the social positions of the buried body in stone line tombs are higher that those of pit tombs. In this dissertation, fist of all, examine type of Koryo tomb through documental resources and then refer to a list of excavated Koryo tombs previously. With these factors, try to compare and investigate between stone lined tombs and pit tombs. The subject of this study is 206 mix distributed relics in same area(Stone lined tomb:137 each, Pit tombs:249 each). this dissertation is to find out the structure of tomb and analysis of organization of burial goods, then with these results, examine discrimination over time, area and social stratum between two types. Through above mentioned methods, this study can draw couple of inferences about the two types of Koryo tombs. Firstly, it is hard to demonstrate that discrepancy in social position can make difference in construction style between two types of tombs. it is found out that difference in times affects transformation of burial trandition. If a tomb made in the same age, differences of tomb type largely depend on building expenses. Secondly, through this study, it is easily found out that social position and economic situation of the buried bodies in stone line tombs are higher than those of pit tombs with considering that numerical value and quality of burial goods and analysis some kinds of distinctive burial goods like as bronze belt, ewer and iron nippers. however, Differences of social position is not classified distinctively between stone line tombs and pit tombs. It rather take on a aspect of difference of buried bodies's economic situation. Thirdly, Koryo dynasty tomb construction trend of general public, based on overlapping situation of massive tomb or simplified stone lined tomb, has some characteristics. The early years of Koyro dynasty, stone lined tombs were leading type. In the middle years, stone lined tombs and pit tombs were used together with considering of economic condition. However, the tradition of stone lined tombs disappeared and lime plastered tombs and pit tombs in the Chosun dynasty were substituted for them. This situation was closely connected with a coup d'etat of year 1170, invasion of Mongolia and introduced confucianism in the end of the Koryo dynasty. From these facts mentioned above, it can be deduced that buried bodies of stone lined tomb had higher social position and economic condition than those of pit tomb. however, after mid-term of Koryo dynasty, choice of tomb type largely depend upon economic situation rather than political power and social position. In the end of the Koryo dynasty, social disorder and introduced confucianism made newly risen class, so called 'Yang-In' . The class could had preference about pit tombs, so pit tombs were getting popular in that time. There are couple of problems awaiting to be solved in forward research such as historical circumstances of koryo dynasty which had frequent occurrence of war and enlarge or expand of tomb construction types. Considering with these problems, forward research will examine relationships between social and ideology change and tomb construction trend.