Studies on Improved Efficiency of Microspore Culture of Brassica rapa ssp. and Newly Development of Chrysanthemum Anther Culture
v, 72 p.
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Chinese cabbage is one of the most important vegetables in Asia, especially in Korea, Japan, and China. A number of previous and ongoing studies have examined the cellular and molecular biology of Chinese cabbage, with the aim of improving this vegetable. The effects of ethylene antagonistic cobalt chloride and silver nitrate, on microspore embryogenesis were investigated using three different concentrations in the medium for three Korean cultivars (two non-heading and one heading) of Chinese cabbage. Inclusion of cobalt chloride in the culture medium (containing activated charcoal) at a concentration of 5 μM significantly improved embryo production in the non-heading cultivar (33 embryos /bud) with embryo yields being increased by up to 32%. The addition of silver nitrate to the culture medium (containing activated charcoal) at a concentration of 0.1 mg/l also showed a progressive increase in embryo yields in the non-heading cultivar (34 embryos /bud) with embryo yields being increased by up to 36%. For the heading cultivars, the highest embryogenic response was 2.8 embryos/bud (Jo saeng Miho), following the addition of 0.1 mg/l silver nitrate to the culture medium, whereas 2.4 embryos/bud were observed with the addition of 5 μM cobalt chloride to the culture medium. This study indicates that a culture medium supplemented with inhibitors of ethylene synthesis/action such as cobalt chloride and silver nitrate generates increased embryo yields in Chinese cabbage microspore culture.To observe the possibility of producing haploid plants of chrysanthemum, anthers of three Korean cultivars 'Yes Morning', 'Hi-Maya', and pot cultivar 'Peace Pink' were cultured. Callus induction among cultivars differed little, but equally good results were obtained with the basal MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/L of 2,4-D, 2 mg/L of BA, 250 mg/L of casein hydrolysate, 45 g/L of sucrose; solidified by 2.75 g/L Gelrite. A pretreatment of anthers in media at 4°C for 48h enhanced the callus induction. Calli were allowed to differentiate on basal MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L of BA, 0.1 mg/L of NAA, 30 g/L of sucrose; solidified by 2.75 g/L Gelrite. Adventitious bud formation from calli in that media slightly differed among cultivars. Multiple shoots elongated from adventitious buds and were shifted to basal MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L of NAA, 30 g/L of sucrose; solidified by 3 g/L Gelrite for rooting. The plantlets with sufficient roots thus obtained were acclimatized and transferred to the soil. Thirty five regenerated plantlets from each cultivar were randomly selected for ploidy observation and haploid plantlet was detected for the garden cultivar 'Yes morning'.