우리나라 부가가치세 면세제도 개선에 관한 연구 : 심판청구 사례를 중심으로
부가가치세 면세제도 심판청구;
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A value-added tax (VAT) is a form of consumption tax. From the perspective of the buyer, it is a tax on the purchase price. From that of the seller, it is a tax only on the value added to a product, material, or service, by the stage of its manufacture or distribution. The purpose of VAT is to generate tax revenues to the government similar to the corporate income tax or the personal income tax. A VAT is like a sales tax in that ultimately only the end consumer is taxed. In this regard, most countries adopt tax exemptions to reduce the regressive nature of VAT. Korea revised VAT several times since its' introduction in 1977 resulting in trivial modifications of the exemption range. The current VAT exemption system of Korea has relatively broader scope of application compared to other OECD countries', and has the area that requires a change of taxation status in response to the rapidly changing social environment. In this paper, we reviewed a few countries' VAT exemptions as well as analysed the cases of the National Tax Office Tribunal. As a result, we find that some VAT exemptions on education service, un-processed foods, and financial service are under unclear or broad guidelines. We suggest to move some part of VAT exemption to regular taxation, which could reduce unnecessary tax litigation resulting in better tax administration. First, education service provided by private institutes is advised to be taxed, though tax exemption for public education service is maintained. Second, a better guideline for unprocessed foods is needed, as those are not under clear rules of tax position for the present. Third, some extremely profit oriented financial and insurance service needs to be excluded from VAT exemption benefit, because it is purposed to reduce financial risk and ultimately increase profits in the rapidly developing banking industry.