지속가능한 항만경쟁력 평가와 청도항의 발전 전략
Sustainable Competitiveness of Port Port Environment Port Performance Port Efficiency Malmquist DEA-BCC Model Qingdao Port;
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In this paper, we analysed the concept of sustainable competitiveness of ports, developed the level index of that, and sought the implications in the development strategies for the sustainable competitiveness of Qingtao port. First, components of sustainable competitiveness and its interaction, the dynamic characters of competitiveness, the influences of outside environments were analysed. From the analysis of the relationship between the dynamic capabilities and competitive advantages it is discovered that implementing of the dynamic strategy according to the features of environmental change can continuously create new competitive advantage, and the sustainable competitiveness can be formed by the accumulation of a series of new competitive advantage. Secondly from analyzing the characters of port competitiveness, we can obtained the three components in the sustainable competitiveness of port; resources, abilities and environments. Thirdly, by analysing the influences of three components on port competitiveness and comparing the difference of traditional competitiveness and sustainable competitiveness, we can define the sustainable competitiveness of port. Building green port logistics system would be the one direction of the future sustainable competitiveness of port. Fourthly, by observing the status and development strategies of Qingdao port, we can try to evaluate the sustainable competitiveness of Qingdao port, according to the factors like the levels of port construction, port throughput, the logistics service and green port construction comparing to these of other Chinese large ports. Fifthly, on the basis of the analysis above, we can construct the evaluation index of the sustainable competitiveness. It consists of environments, performances and efficiencies of port. The environments of ports can be evaluated by the investment amounts for the improvement of port environment in the province which the port locates. The performances of port can be evaluated by the container traffic volumes. And the efficiencies of port can be evaluated by the dynamic efficiency obtained by using the Malmquist DEA-BCC model. In parallel, the dynamic efficiencies and the causes of the efficiency difference in Shanghai port, Shenzhen port, Ningbo-zhoushan port, Qingdao port, Guangzhou port, Tianjin port and Dalian port as China's seven largest container ports were analyzed. As a conclusion of the empirical analysis, port productivity changes have a more positive correlation with container volume changes than with port scale, meaning increasing returns to scale. On the contrary, the decreasing of economic scale and the level of technology have negative impact on the port efficiency. In the end, from the evaluation based on the amonts for the environmental improvement, container volumes as port performances and port dynamic efficiencies, the sustainable competitiveness of Qingdao port was viewed. The problems existing in the Qingdao port and the solutions to them were found from these points. As conclusion, the suggestions to Qingdao port are as following: first, in the phase of slowing down in container volumes in Qingdao and improvements of competitiveness in other newly built ports, local government should have a proper strategy toward port development; second, by emerging as a regional hub and a port cluster to strengthen the port cooperation in Shandong Province, Qingdao port can be developed to a higher level; third, by prompting regional economy and common prosperity related to the port, Qingdao Port can have a further role in local economy; fourth, the further development of Qingdao port can also be obtained by actively promoting low-carbon green port construction and strengthening the safety.