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Effects of question level and contextual appropriateness on kindergartner's word learning

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    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of question level and contextual appropriateness on kindergartner's word learning. During reading alouds storybooks children were received two kinds of questions for the target words: Low or high. Low-level questions using who, what, when, or where required to label or say perceptual characteristics of target words. High-level questions using why or how required inference, analysis, or concept-based judgement about target words. Two kinds of contextual appropriateness were the additional information supplied for helping to comprehend the meanings of the target words. One was appropriate contexts which were introduced dictionary meanings and concrete examples. The other was inappropriate contexts which were introduced meanings which were relevant and not dictionary and concrete non-examples. In the experiments four experimental designs (within-subject, alternating -treatment and repeated-measures) were used to determine the effects of four conditions (low questions plus appropriate contexts, low questions plus inappropriate contexts, high questions plus appropriate contexts, high questions plus inappropriate contexts) during the trainer reading alouds on kindergarten children's both receptive and expressive target words learning. In particular both traditional standardized picture vocabulary test and target word definition assessment were used to measure the effects. Participants of this study were 48 children, age 5 years, selected from two preschools and were assigned randomly to four conditions. These children were received seven sessions which consisted of one pretest, four training and one posttest and two-week delayed test. And four storybooks were used in the experiment. Main findings of this study were as follows: First, the receptive word learning was not significant differences between low and high questions on both traditional standardized picture vocabulary test and target word definition assessment. But high questions facilitated the expressive word learning on target word definition assessment. Second, appropriate contexts facilitated both receptive and expressive word learning on target word definition assessment. But contextual appropriateness did not influence both receptive and expressive word learning on the traditional standardized picture vocabulary test Third, the picture vocabulary test showed long-term retention effects on both receptive and expressive word learning. But target word definition assessment showed more immediate effects than tow-week delayed effects on both receptive and expressive word learning. These findings suggest that the question level and contextual appropriateness during reading alouds storybooks are important strategies in the preschool vocabulary instruction.


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