춘당 김수악 춤의 전승 양상 연구
A study on the transmission about Kim Su-ak's dances
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This paper studied the transmission aspects of Choondang Kim Su-ak's dances. Jinju area through the medium of Jinju Gyobang and Gwonbeon is the treasure house of Korean traditional dances from the point of continuously educating the dances and traditional arts such as Jinju Geommu (sword dance), Jinju Hanryangmu, Jinju Pogurakmu, Jinju Gyobanggutgeorychoom, Euambyeoljegamu, Buddhist dance, Salpurichoom and some items in Gungjung Jeongjae. At the center of the traditional art, that who led and handed down the traditional dance to modern times was Choondang Kim. After learning yanggeum in the five years old enrolled gukakge(the world of Korean traditional art), Kim Su-ak, died in 2009, was an artist who had the ongoing traditional art activities during more than 80 years center of Jinju area. Kim was the holders of Jinju Geommu which was designated as Important Intangible Cultural Property No. 12 in 1967 and Jinju Gyobanggutgeorychoom designated as Gyeongsangnam-do Intangible Cultural Property No. 21 in 1997. However, despite of Kim's remarkable achievements, the situation of the research about her is not much. After stepping into gukakge in the Japanese occupation, the study of Kim who had been artistic activities during the turbulent time of the situation such as Korean liberation and the Korean war, will be inevitable to the history of figures in Korean dance as well as the Jinju area. Gyobangchoom is the most stylish and elegant dance among the Korean traditional dance and it has played a role to the development of Korean traditional dance with having a profound impact on forming sinmuyong (a new dance). Thus, Gyobangchoom is a central research targets in the study of traditional dance. Gyobang was a institution undertaking the popular music from a Goryeo dynasty and also the school of gisaeng. At an early age, Jinju from the Silla period as a center of western Gyeongnam installed Gyobang was swept institution-led culture. With the fall of Joseon Dynasty circa 1910 and disappearing the system of bureaucratic gisaeng, Gwonbeon was founded and led the traditional artistic culture in Jinju. After undergoing liberation and the Korean war, beginning of the Western culture, Gwonbeon had been dissolved and the gisaeng culture had declined. Kim Su-ak was born in December 10, 1925 (lunar calendar) at Seoha-myeon, Hamyang-gun, Gyeongnam. As the influence of housing environment, Kim since childhood was close to Koran traditional art. Kim learned yanggeum in 5 years with introduction to gukakge and entered Jinju Gwonbeon in 1933 at the age of nine and polished art in earnest. At this time, she learned the dance from Choi Sun-i, and the sounds from Yu Seoung-jun and Lee Sun-yu. After graduating from Gwonben, Kim, finding mentors in different locations in Seoul, Jeonla-do, Gyeongsang-do, studied sounds and dances. Jinju dance was passed down courtesans by Choi Sun-i through Jinju Gyobang and Gwonbeon. Then in 1962 was enacted laws for the protection of cultural property, Jinju Geommu was designated as Important Intangible Cultural Property in 1967. January 1997 Jinju Gyobanggutgeorychoom was given a designated Intangible Cultural Asset, 21st in Gyeongnam-do and Kim became the holder of the two artistic assets. In the 2000s, mainly she strived to concentrate on the performance and transmission of Jinju Gyobanggutgeorychoom. Kim emphasized on artists having virtues such as mind, spirit, effort, great patience, resentment, aerodynamic, and soul. This seven virtues are to be seen implied all Kim's artistic viewpoints. Kim was learned several traditional dances through many teachers. This paper is centered on Jinju Gyobanggutgeorychoom, Jinju Geommu, Salpurichoom and Nongae Salpurichoom among Kim's arts. Each concept, costume, props, instrumental accompaniment and choomsawi(dancing style) of the four dances is analysed. Jinju Gyobanggutgeorychoom were starting to be performed by Kim Su-ak who reconstituted and grafted gutgeorychoom which is Jinju Gweonben series dance in accordance with gutgeory tune to sogo dance with jajinmori tune. After the designated Intangible Cultural Asset, 21st in Gyeongnam-do, Kim began to make completes and hold nationwide dancing workshop to expand across the country in the areas of transmission to dance. Jinju Geommu has a long history and has original figures inheriting from Gyobang to Gwonbeon and be well preserved. This dance was also handed down dancers in Jinju Gwonbeon by Choi Sun-i but Kim transmitted the dance with differentiation to Jinju Folk Arts Preservation Society activities and personal activities. Kim Su-ak's Salpurichoom learned from Choi Sun-i and Kim Nok-ju is Jinju Gwonbeon series Salpurichoom and Kim sublimated the distinctive dance with the artistic talents. Because this dance is not designated as an intangible cultural asset, there are few people who want to learn. So it is handed down a handful of disciples. Nongae Salpurichoom is danced by Kim Su-ak as only the creative dance. Kim, who gave a lot of respect for Nongae's the patriotic spirit, wrote song, poem and dance about Nongae. This dance, the most feeble dancing item to transmit in Kim, is urgently needed to inherit. This paper researched the aesthetic characteristics in Kim Su-ak's dance with the oriental arts holistic aesthetic concept vigor(氣), fortune(運), purity(靜), elegance(風流), Yeag spirit (禮樂精神). And it investigated the three concepts of the aesthetic characteristics and researched how to be inherent in any manner to Kim's dance. I studied the meaning of the transmissional aspects about Kim's dance divided by institutional, cultural artistic and social public means. Kim became the cornerstone of development of traditional dance in Jinju among the fastest-growing traditional arts and socially recognized the artistry of the institutional change. Kim linked directly and indirectly Gyobang's Yeag honored the loyalty and filial piety. She would be big hitters in the dancing transmission and inspiring patriotism in Jinju region. In addition, in spite of the negative social background since modern times, the cultural and artistic significance is huge as the last artist throughout the first half of the last mastered ak·ga·mu(樂·歌·舞) with constantly learning and tradition activities. Kim, the deep-rooted local artist in Jinju as an important bridge between Jinju Gwonbeon and modern times to the dance transmitted from Jinju Gyobang, must be a figure having very important meaning in artistic transmission to the local dance. Kim has already died, but the art containing 80 years of spirit assures the value to perform with constantly transmission and development regardless of age.