(The) response regulators in bacterial Two-component System:OmpR/PhoB family
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Signal transduction systems function as intracellular information-processing pathways that link external stimuli to specific adaptive responses. Despite great diversity in stimuli and responses, a relatively small number of molecular strategies are used for signaling, with protein phosphorylation being one such fundamental strategy. For the last three decades, since a major signal transduction pathway in bacteria was coined as two-component systems (TCSs), hundreds genes associated in the regulation have been identified. It has been appreciated that the typical TCSs, containing as basic components of a sensor kinase (or often called as histidine kinase) and a response regulator, and atypical TCSs plays a critical role in modulation of the most part of biological processes independently or cooperatively. In this review, we summarize knowledge including the current findings and discuss the signaling mechanism with structure and domain functions of the biggest group of the response regulator families, OmpR/PhoB. In addition, we briefly present the response regulators in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, a notorious pathogenic bacteria to rice plant to help the understanding for pathogenicity and the TCSs.