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카자흐스탄의 중앙아시아 안보정책연구 원문보기

  • 저자

    양우진

  • 학위수여기관

    한국외국어대학교 대학원

  • 학위구분

    국내석사

  • 학과

    국제관계학과

  • 지도교수

    손영훈

  • 발행년도

    2014

  • 총페이지

    100 p

  • 키워드

    카자흐스탄 안보정책 미어셰이머 공격적 현실주의;

  • 언어

    kor

  • 원문 URL

    http://www.riss.kr/link?id=T13538755&outLink=K  

  • 초록

    An applicability study on Mearsheimer's realism for security strategy of Kazakhstan in Central Asia With the collapse of the Soviet Union, it was believed that the age of ideology which had lasted sine the end of World War Ⅱ would finish and perpetual peace could be accomplished in the 21st century. Also, a new globalization ideology which emphasizes inter-state cooperation was emerging as a leading concept which led the international system. With such a concept, many studies defined the international system as an international community asserting that the threat of war had been reduced remarkably by the expansion of intricate economical interdependence. As a result, even realists who had defined the international system with pessimism concept began to be optimistic about a peaceful world. However, as John J. Mearsheimer asserts, it seems to be wrong to claim that the anarchic international system which causes security competition and the possibility of war have disappeared significantly. The number of the outbreak of conflicts had doubled since the end of the Cold War, and by mid 1990s it increased fivefold and the number of the regions of armed conflict also increased by about two times. In addition, a new security threat caused by non-state actors such as religious extremists and terrorists brought about general changes to the security policy that many states have taken and such increase in global conflicts gave persuasiveness to the realism theory which asserted an 'international order by power'. Kazakhstan is located in Central Asia possessing a vast territory. Having become independent with the collapse of the Soviet Union, the country has made a rapid economic growth during a short period of 20 years and grown into a major exporter of natural resources. As a result, now Kazakhstan is recognized as one of the most important strategic partners in the 21st century and especially its security environment is drawing attention from realists. Notably, the central Asian region is geographically bordering with China and Russia being located between the Eurasian Continent and Europe. Due to such geographical characteristic, the region cognizanced as a center of 'Silk Road' historically and is recently being recognized again as a strategic location for global logistics and military strategy as a 'New Silk Road' by its geographic and economic values. Because of such strategic value of the central Asian region, Great Powers have made efforts to project their military-economic force since long ago. There was The Great Game between the British Empire and the Russian Empire during the 19th century, and recently the policy of 'Russian Southern Belt' which connects 'the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea, and Central Asia' is being implemented after Putin, make Central Asia as a region of conflict of interest among Powers. The established theory of the academic circles is that though Kazakhstan advocates free economy and is making efforts to adopt the economic system of the U.S. and western world, still it is under the influence of Russia in the sector of national security. In the case of the military doctrine of Kazakhstan, there remain many clauses affected by former USSR and Russia even though many changes were made by the advice of Western experts, and most of training and equipment of its froces including weapon system depend on Russia. After all, contrary to the keynote policy if the nation which asserts independence in national security and economy, the security strategy of Kazakhstan is evaluated to remain under the strong influence of world powers. In fact, in many cases, realism theories with a structural aspect tended to make analyses putting major powers of a given age in the center. In other words, as analysis units, the states and actors in the international system make a kind of norm through endless interaction centering around an actor which has a 'hegemony' enough to lead the system. As a result, many researches based on such theories only dealt with the Central Asian policies of powers or defined the national security policy of Kazakhstan as a bandwagoning policy destroying the independence as an actor of international system. However, as Waltz and Mearsheimer point out, a system is an abstract concept which does not involve perpetuity, and it has been proved historically that in many cases the structural arrangement change regardless of the positiveness of the preservative mechanism of structure by actors. Moreover, the interaction between non-power nations and the hegemon makes an influence on the general decision of each actor even within a structure, and thus it is not desirable to simply define the national security strategy of Kazakhstan as bandwagoning. In contrast to the external security strategy of Kazakhstan which depends more or less on powers, it's internal security strategy is active and aggressive based on its relatively superior latent power and military power. That is, the regional security strategy of Kazakhstan is showing the possibility of applying the realism theory of Mearsheimer who asserts that "The ultimate goal of states is acquiring hegemony in the region, and they are situated in a tragic structure in which they cannot but make endless competition intrinsically." Regarding this, this study intends to make a multi-dimensional analysis of the national security strategy of Kazakhstan with a concept different from other existing researches applying the theory of Mearsheimer who asserted the rationality of the pursuit of interest and the competition for the acquisition of a 'relative power'.


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