“우스 루지아다스”(Os Lusiadas)와 “멘사젱”(Mensagem) 비교 연구
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A Comparative Study of "Os Lusiadas" and "Mensagem": Focused on the Sebastianismo The main purpose of this dissertation is to make a comparison between Os Lusíadas of Luís de Camões and Mensagem of Pessoa, both of which are representative works exploring “Supra-Camões”. The expression “Supra-Camões” having the meaning of “To overcome Camões” or “To transcend Camões” was coined by Pessoa, a pioneer in the area of the postmodernism literature, and firstly found in his work, “A New Portuguese Poem from a Sociological Perspective”. The coinage of this term is interpreted as an attempt to transcend the Renaissance poet Camões who had long enjoyed an unchallenged predominant position in the history of Portuguese literature until the beginning of the twentieth century. In the poem, mentioning the writers like Shakespeare and Victor Hugo, Pessoa pointed out that from a historical point of view a great poet is necessarily present before a new era of great civilization begins. According to him, literature proceeds with the historical value of the period and the history of civilization as well as expresses thought in an age. Pessoa placed an emphasis on ethnicity and identity, aspiring to the emergence of a great poet like Shakespeare in Portugal in the coming future, who can surpass Camões. He expected the coming of such a period, and believed that a great poet must emerge before the period. Os Lusíadas mainly deals with a voyage of Vasco da Gama. However, it primarily depicted group consciousness of the Portuguese who had made glorious achievements rather than glorified the personal story of a hero. The author's power of imagination can be seen most vividly in his descriptions of the “Island of Love” which is honorably given to heros having finished their duties, and of fights between olympus gods at the time of Gama's exploration of India. In particular, in the period of Renaissance, he had introduced a new format of heroic poems by demonstrating his own critical thinking by using various episodes. In other words, he attempted to take an influence on social opinion by expressing his own criticism in his work rather than simply glorify heroic deeds. In Mensagem of which the literal meaning is “message” or “oracle” in Portuguese, Pessoa sought to depict self-criticism, the restoration of racial identity, and the coming great civilization of future. He wrote this work based upon "Sebastianismo" emerging as a national religion under the shameful Spanish rule. The heroic poem glorified great kings and figures, and portrayed the gloomy reality of the country as well. The writer pointed out that the Portuguese who once had played a pivotal role in the world was now perishing due to their defeatism and self-complacency. The two poems are closely linked to D. Sebastião in common. Camões dedicated his heroic poem (Os Lusíadas) to the most powerful figure, D. Sebastião. In accordance with the national religion “Sebastianismo” and based upon the return of D. Sebastião, Pessoa presented Mensagem indicating the coming of the period for constructing “the 5th Empire” which is a spiritually flawless country. Os Lusíadas is a heroic poem written when Portugal reached a summit of its colonialism. The structure of this work is similar to that of traditional classical poem (epopeia clássica). The contemporary European were fascinated with his vivid depictions of Africa and Asia. He justified the religious obligation of the construction of the Christian kingdom by presenting supernatural phenomena and portraying heros' accomplishments in a fictitious way. Mensagem was, on the other hand, composed at the declining period of the Portuguese Empire and it is analogous with a lyric poem in its structure. Therefore, it can be considered as a lyric heroic poem (épico-lírica). Pessoa was in deep grief when he witnessed his Empire perishing and declining. He lived in sorrow facing gloomy and dark reality. Finally, he chose the return of D. Sebastião as a unique means of emphasizing the superiority of his nation and propagating national consciousness, and proposed to build a completely brand new empire which is morally and spiritually perfect via D. Sebastião. It may not be appropriate to simply regard Mensagem as a reconstructed modern version of Os Lusíadas. Pessoa speculated that a new song worthy to be praised should be made for the Portuguese who had exploited a voyage to India, expanded their territory, and constructed an empire. He wanted to serve as a pioneer who is more influential than Camões for the development of new civilization. Whereas Os Lusíadas praised heros and their achievements such as the expansion of territory and the spreading of Christianity, Mensagem intended to enlighten the Portuguese who could not establish their identity regardless of their ability, make them to be equipped with the spirit and the soul of D. Sebastião who had made a venture to achieve a far-reaching goal, and enable them to build a great new civilization. According to him, it is “the Fifth Empire” that would be constructed by his people in the future, and he was very confident that the new empire should be more perfect than the Portuguese empire completed and led by Camões in the sixteenth century.