A Study on SCO CONTRIBUTIONS TO REGIONAL SECURITY
Monica Ramos Flores
HANKUK UNIVERSITY OF FOREIGN STUDIES. Graduate School of International and Area Studies
Hwang, Jae Ho
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A Study on SCO CONTRIBUTIONS TO REGIONAL SECURITY: Possibilities and Limitations under the Regional Security Complex Theory The Shanghai Cooperation Organization was created in 2001. It is constituted by China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. Security cooperation is the priority of the organization focused on combating terrorism and narcotrafic. In the last years, the organization has been criticized by its lack of effectiveness in improving regional security based on the inoperability or the low efficiency on conflict solving. Under this situation, to what extent the SCO contributes to improve regional security? This question is addressed under the security regimes theory framework; the final objective of a security regime is to avoid the escalation of conflicts. In order to achieve it, the countries have to adhere to a set of norms or rules and adopt a moderated behavior. The SCO is set as a security regime; the SCO Charter is the constitutive document of the organization, which establishes certain possibilities and limitations for the improvement of regional security. The structure of the organization limits the extent of security improvement. Therefore there are areas where the organization can make contributions to regional security and there are others where the cooperation is not that effective. In the first case, the confidence building, legislation harmonization and cooperation with other agencies are possible contributions to regional security. Regarding limitations, the SCO has to manage new challenges like the lack of policy implementation, the possible enlargement of the organization, and which candidates the member states are going to support as the possible new members, the discussion is centered in India and Pakistan; and Russia and China different views regarding SCO economic agenda. The implications for the global security go from the stability and peace in the region, to promoting multilateral cooperation and, at the same time the SCO could be a model for other regions in conflict. In the case of ROK-SCO, the implications are with SCO as the organization and the promotion of non-proliferation and in a broader context, China-Russia and the Korean Peninsula. There is also a section of the security implications for Mexico.