Effect of ingredients and process variables on the quality attributes of cereal-based foods : Effect of ingredients and process variables on the quality attributes of cereal-based foods
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The quality attributes of cereal-based foods (Danish pastry, Baekseolgi, and Injeolmi) were characterized as a function of ingredients and various process variables. Danish pastries were prepared with shortening, margarine, and butter as a roll-in fat adding with three levels of gluten (0, 3, and 6%) and baking improver (0, 0.5, and 1.0%). Danish pastry dough prepared with shortening showed higher G' value and hardness value compared to those with margarine. Baked Danish pastry prepared with butter exhibited the highest lightness compared with those with margarine and shortening. Baekseolgi, non-glutinous rice cakes, were prepared by varying water content (60, 65% (w/v)) and steaming time (6, 8, and 10 min). Hardness and adhesiveness of Baekseolgi according to ingredients and steaming process variables were significantly different. Addition of 65% water was more effective in increasing the hardness and adhesiveness of Baekseolgi (W65), however, it was easy to make crystallized starch structure during storage. In opposite, textural and crystalline properties of Baekseolgi prepared by adding 60% water were independent on steaming time. Addition of emulsifiers (propylene glycol, sodium stearoyl lactylate, and sucrose esters of fatty acids) and punching (3, 5, and 7 min) was undertaken showed effects on quality of Injeolmi (glutinous rice cake). Moisture content of the steamed rice cake prepared without emulsifiers was rapidly decreased and its retrogradation level was high. When punching time was not sufficient to make homogeneous dough, steamed glutinous rice cake showed increased hardness during storage. The effects of frozen storage 1-28 days and thawing process steaming or storage at room temperature on the quality of rice cakes were investigated. The hardness of frozen Baekseolgi by steaming and thawing for 3 h was 37.58 ± 0.85 N whereas the thawing at room temperature increased hardness up to 60.59 ± 0.76 N. Adhesiveness of Baekseolgi was not affected by the two thawing methods. It indicated that steaming was the effective thawing method to retard the retrogradation of Baekseolgi. The texture properties of frozen Injeolmi rice cakes after thawing were significantly different depending on the types of emulsifiers and punching steps. Especially; PG was the most effective in maintaining lower hardness and higher adhesiveness, even though, after freezing storage for 28 days.
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