생태학적 관점에서 본 레슬리 마먼 실코 — 『의식』, 『이야기꾼』, 『모래언덕 위의 정원』을 중심으로 : An Ecological Analysis of Leslie Marmon Silko's Ceremony, Storyteller, and Gardens in the Dunes
An Ecological Analysis of Leslie Marmon Silko's Ceremony, Storyteller, and Gardens in the Dunes
생태문학 생태위기 생태학 인디언 가치관 자본주의 자연 조화 포용;
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In making and providing a new ethics or a frame of world outlook to overcome ecological crises, ecological literature and ecological interpretation can be much more effective and useful means than ecological research in natural science. The aim of this dissertation is to research from an ecological perspective the literature of ecology and Leslie Marmon Silko's ecological vision represented in her major works, Ceremony(1977), Storyteller(1981), and The Gardens in the Dunes(1999). The graver the destruction of ecosystem becomes, the more important environmental concerns become. We are faced with a whole series of global problems that do great damage to the biosphere and human life, which will make them irreversible. A solution to the major problems of our time is to bring a new and radical change of paradigm to our perceptions, thoughts and values. The new paradigm may be called a holistic world view, which sees the world as an integrated whole rather than as a dissociated collection of fragments. It is natural that literature should both reflect and support those concerns in this era of ecological disaster. For this reason, literature of ecology came into being in the 1970s, and literary theorists and scholars began to undertake collaborative projects in the field of environmental literary studies, many of whom were aware of the environmental crisis. Indian writer Silko suggests a new paradigm by exploring the traditional Indian view of nature, in which humankind and the natural world are intimately intertwined. Ceremony concerns the healing process of a mixed blooded Indian named Tayo, who is an outsider in his community and whose sense of alienation results from different values of Whites and Indians. The world view of Indian tribes is centered on Mother Earth and the people's relationship to their nature. It is thoroughly different from that of Caucasian. In this novel, Silko asserts that the domination of nature by man has led to ecological crisis. She believes that this ecological calamity generated by Caucasian stems from the objectification of the environment. Silko calls for a shift from anthropocentric humanism to an ecocentrism in which all members of ecosystem have equal rights as interrelated parts of the biosphere. In Storyteller, Silko experiments with multiple genres ― fiction, poetry, historical narrative, and memoir ― in a single work. Silko interrogates and dissolves the authority of the Caucasian who are obsessed with the exploitation and oppression of people and nature. She criticizes the leading Western capitalist ideologies, colonialism, and anthropocentrism which, she trusts, have led to the ecological crisis. And she suggests Indian eco-vision as that alternative to the ecological crisis of the contemporary age which is based on the idea that nature has intrinsic values independent of the usefulness of a particular entity world. The core of Indian eco-vision bases itself on the fact that human beings are no longer the center of value. Silko believes that the world is an organism: all parts are dependent on one another and affect each other and the organic whole. Silko proposes that human beings should realize ecological diversity and respect and love all living things and beings. In Gardens in the Dunes, Silko analyzes the experiences and implications of various gardens and emphasizes the necessity of the attitudes of harmony and magnanimity in making an ecological community. In doing so, she describes the travel course of Indigo the protagonist, who is a native of the virtual Sand Lizard in the North American southwest in early 20th century. The core message of the work is the need to abandon the exclusive attitudes, characteristic of White culture and value and to accept them as the objects to embrace. He emphasizes the logical uselessness of cultural and political division through Ghost Dance or Indian culture, which can be found in European gardens and stone statues with the similar themes to those of bears and snakes. In this work, the destructive behavior caused by the materialistic value of Whites is shown not only in nature but also in human beings. While criticizing the value of Whites, Silko shows the basic connection between the cultures of Indians and Whites and also tries to prove the validity and possibility of harmony. Based on mutual respect and harmony that has become the foundation of the ecological world view, the encompassing attitude toward other cultures is stressed. This attitude can help to rectify the western capitalistic value that has caused the current ecological crisis and has regarded nature as inferior existence. Silko shows realistic resistance to the Indians who have been governed by Whites' discourse by restoring Indian stories and history that have been under repression for a long time. What Silko consistently has tried to disclose through Ceremony, Storyteller, and Gardens in the Dunes is the problems of the Western capitalistic value, a dichotomous way of thinking and anthropecentricism that caused ecological crises. As an alternative, Silko emphasizes the organic harmonious relationship between nature and humans, through which she suggests that nature consists of friendly values of the Indians. The members of nature including human beings have a complicate relationship like a web, which is apt to lose balance by a small damage of a part. The current ecological problem we are facing is a fundamental one which, connected to human life, is to be solved by all means. Silko shows that nature in this crisis is not a passive object (that is) to be exploited or destroyed by human beings but an independent member of life with inherent value as well as a colleague to live with human beings in a respectable way. To Silko, nature is an object that has an existential value equal to human beings'.