Bioconversion of Aniline to Acetaminophen and Overproduction of Acetaminophen by Streptomyces spp.
In order to obtain acetaminophen, a popular analgesic-antipyretic, though microbial p-hydroxylation and N-acetylation of aniline, various Streptomyces strains were screened. Aniline N-acetylation activity was rather ubiquitous but-hydroxylation activity was selective. Microbial conversion pathway of aniline to acetaminophen was considered to be through N-acetylation and p-hydroxylation or vice versa. However, depending on species used, o-hydroxylation and its degradation activity (S. fradiae) and acetaminophen degradation activity (S. coelicolar) were also detected. Among the screened Streptomyces strains, S fradiae NRRL 2702 showed the highest acetanilide p-hydroxylation activity (203% conversion rate). Furthermore, in S. fradiae carbon source and its concentration, phosphate ion concentration and pH of growth medium were found to play the crucial roles in p-hydroxylation activity. Through the proper combination of factors mentioned above, the ten times more activity (26-30% conversion rate) was attained.
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