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러시아외교정책의 기조변화와 과제
The Change and Problems of the Ideological Trend of Russian Foreign Policy

나석권    (상지대교수  );
  • 초록

    Since the end of communism, Russia's old partners no longer accept the almost one sided Russia's declarations of partnership, and this has placed Russia's ability to conduct an effective foreign policy in doubt. In the complicated and paradoxical and economic situation, Moscow is persistently appealing for partnership with industrially advanced countries. However, we wonder what countries have set definitive actions in their own policies toward Russia. To join in the developed field of world association, Russia should hasten productive and efficient cooperation with the world on a diverse number of fundamental problems of foreign policy. There have been two sharply confronted forces; the reds and the anticommunists in debating on foreign policy. Russia has been ailed by the unsettled problems of international relations and her own national identity. Because it is unclear whether it be an absolute monarchy, a Bolshevic dictatorship, or anticommunist authoritarianism. On philosophical and systematic concepts, extremist mood of the left wing sybmerged partly into the right but not whole. Among major ideological schools, the neocommunist worldview, radical nationalism and traditional conservatism, ideological clashes have been continued. Russia possesses powerful, modern industry, great reserves of qualified workforces and richful scientific and technical potential. Euroatlanticism and idealogical moralism were divided to meet national interests. At present all of the former Soviet republics base their foreign policy on nationalism. It is likely to indicate that democracy could only be realized when the preconditions of this be settled. Russia's main philosophy of foreign policy has been known as Euroatlanticism and idealogical moralism. Then what about Eurasianism? Near abroad policy is very important for it's national interest. This contradiction of approache does not fully equate with the conflict of Westernizers and Slavophiles. In short, it means a kind of struggle between ideological moralism and geopolitical pragmatism. Can we declare that the whole people of Russia escaped from the status of prisoners of old idealogy? But at least, in the earlier stage of the post Soviet Russia's foreign policy was not so clearly different from the prisoner status, in old days by communism and nowdays, by democratic ideology. In it's disassociation from all allies of former USSR, the leadership abandoned traditional spheres and regions of influence and run toward the former opponents while not secusring it's society in new system. Concerning the far abroad policy, Russia has shown a preference for the industrially advanced West countries. Therefore, we can state that Russia needs strong leadership. Cooperation with the world without bipolarity splitting mankind into antagnonistic hostility should be adopted as their basic policy. Increased use of military force with nuclear power at regional and local levels should be decreased as well as on a global level. Russia still has many problems both inside and outside. Relations with US, Europe, the Asian-Pacific region, China, and South Asia should be developed for economic growth and political stability. In conclusion, Russia should create its new identity by resolving its fundamental domestic problems. And it should keep positive foreign policy based on peace keeping doctrine and economic cooperation with the world. Proper national policy making mechanism with compromise between the excecutive and legislative branches are presupposed. It seems very hard to forecast the success of russia's new democratic romanticism or better know to day as market romanticism. Russia has to dismiss the superstition of power politics and extend every effort to tide over the economic hardship above all by persuing pragmatic national interest.


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