경제사상의 변화 (공급측면 경제학의 시험)
The changes of economic though (The trial of supply-side economics)
Many of the measures and policies advocated by supply-siders, such as lower taxation, less government intervention, more freedom from restrictive legislation and regulation, and the need for increased productivity can be found in writing the classical economist. Nor is supply-side economics a complete divorcement from Keynesian analysis. In both camps the objectives are the same-high level employment, stable prices and healthy economic growth, the means or suggestions for attaining the objectives, however, differ. Consequently, recommended economic policies and measures are different. keynesians rely primarily on the manipulation of effective demand to increase output and employment and to combat inflation. They assume ample resources to be available in order that supply will respond to demand. The supply-siders emphasize the need to increase savings, investment, productivity and output as a means of increasing income. Supply-siders assume that the increase in income will lead to an increase in effective demand. Keynesians suggest that savings, particularly those not invested, dampen economic activity. Supply-siders hold that savings, or at least an increase in after-tax income, stimulates work effort and provides funds for investment. Perhaps keynesians are guilty of assuming that most savings are not going to be invested, whereas supply-siders may erroneously assume that almost all savings will flow into investment and/ or stimulate work effort. In reality, a middle ground is possible. The supply-siders stress the need to increase supply, but Keynes did not preclude the possibility of increasing economic activity by working through the supply side. According to Keynes' aggregate demand-aggregate supply framework, a decrease in supply will increase output and employment. It must be remembered, however, that Keynes' aggregate supply is really a price. Lowering the price or cost of supply would there by result in higher profit and/ or higher output. This coincides with the viewpoint of supply-siders who want to lower the cost of production via various means for the purpose of increasing supply. Then, too, some of the means, such as tax cuts, tax credits and accelerated depreciation, recommended by suply-siders to increase productivity and output would be favored by Keynesians also as a means of increasing investment, curbing costs, and increasing effective demand. In fact, these very measures were used in the early 1960s in the United State during the years when nagging unemployment was plaguing the economy. Keynesians disagree with the supply-siders' proposals to reduce transfer payments and slow down the process of income redistribution, except in full employment inflationary periods. Keynesians likewise disagree with tax measures that favored business as opposed to individuals and the notion of shifting the base of personal taxation away from income and toward spending. A frequent criticism levied at supply-side economics is that it lacks adequate models and thus far has not been quantified to any great extent. But, it should be remembered that Keynesian economics originally was lacking in models and based on a number of unproved assumptions, such as, the stability of the consumption function with its declining marginal propensity to consume. Just as the economic catastrophe of the great depression of the 1930s paved the way for the application of Keynesian or demand-side policies, perhaps the frustrating and restless conditions of the 1970s and 1980s is an open invitation for the application of supply-side policies. If so, the 1980s and 1990s may prove to be the testing era for the supply-side theories. By the end of 1990s we should have better supply-side models and know much more about the effectiveness of supply-side policies. By that time, also, supply-side thinking may be more crystallized and we will learn whether it is something temporary that will fade away, be widely accepted as the new economics replacing Keynesia
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