월경전 불쾌기분장애에 관한 전향적인 연구
A Prospective Study of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
This study was designed to determine the frequency of premenstrual dysphoric disorder in gynecological outpatients, and also attempted to compare premenstrual change characteristics, functional impairment due to premenstrual changes and frequency of risk factors reported by women with confirmed premenstrual changes $(PMC^+)$ (n=17) and those without confirmed premenstrual changes $(PMC^-)$ (n=23). Forty gynecological outpatients who complained of premenstrual discomforts were asked to complete questionnaires on menstrual history, obstetric-gynecological history, and premenstrual change and functional impairment. The women were also asked to complete a daily rating form based on DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for one menstrual cycle. Absolute severity method, effect size method and percent change method were used to assess changes between follicular phase and luteal phase. The results of the study were as follows: 1) The frequency of premenstrual dysphoric disorder according to each of the three methods was 5% for the absolute severity method, 15% for the effect size method, and 27.5% for the percent change method. 2) The frequently reported symptoms were as follow: physical symptoms(64.7%) : lethargy, easy fatigability, or marked lack of energy(41.2%) : decreased interest in usual activities(29.4%) ; and marked affective lability(23.5%). 3) There were no significant differences in onset ages of premenstrual changes, regularities of premenstrual changes and changes of severity and duration of premenstrual symptoms over time between women with and without confirmed premenstrual changes. However, women with confirmed premenstrual changes reported both physical and emotional symptoms as earliest symptoms most frequently, while women without confirmed premenstrual changes reported only physical symptoms most frequently. 4) functional impairment was significantly higher in women with confirmed premenstrual changes than those without confirmed premenstrual changes, but impairment was not severe. 5) No differences were found between women with and without confirmed premenstrual changes in risk factors including demographic data, menstrual and obstetric and gynecological history. These results suggest that the prevalence of premenstrual dysphoric disorder varies with scoring methods. The women with confirmed premenstrual changes reported physical symptoms most frequently(64.7%). functional impairment was significantly higher in women with confirmed premenstrual changes, but impairment was not severe.
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