본문 바로가기
HOME> 논문 > 논문 검색상세

논문 상세정보

Nutraceuticals and food v.7 no.3, 2002년, pp.332 - 345  

Use of Prebiotics, Probiotics and Synbiotics in Clinical Immunonutrition

Bengmark, Stig   (Ideon Research Center, Lund UniversityUU0014000  );
  • 초록

    It is a recent observation that about 80 per cent of the body's immune system is localized in the gastrointestinal tract. This explains to a large extent why eating right is important for the modulation the immune response and prevention of disease. In addition it is increasingly recognized that the body has an important digestive system also in the lower gastrointestinal tract where numerous important substances are released by microbial enzymes and absorbed. Among these substances are short chain fatty acids, amino acids, various carbohydrates, poly-amines, growth factors, coagulation factors, and many thousands of antioxidants, not only traditional vitamins but numerous flavonoids, carotenoids and similar plant- and vegetable produced antioxidants. Also consumption of health-promoting bacteria (probiotics) and vegetable fibres (prebiotics) from numerous sources are known to have strong health-promoting influence. It has been calculated that the intestine harbours about 300,000 genes, which is much more than the calculated about 60,000 for the rest of the human body, indicating a till today totally unexpected metabolic activity in this part of the GI tract. There are seemingly several times more active enzymes in the intestine than in the rest of the body, ready to release hundred thousand or more of substances important for our health and well-being. In addition do the microbial cells produce signal molecules similar to cytokines but called bacteriokines and nitric oxide, with provide modulatory effects both on the mucosal cells, the mucosa- associated lymphoid system (MALT) and the rest of the immune system. Identification of various fermentation products, and often referred to as synbiotics, studies of their role in maintaining health and well-being should be a priority issue during the years to come.


  • 주제어

    prebiotics .   probiotics .   synbiotics .   immune system.  

  • 참고문헌 (87)

    1. Eaton SB, Konnor M. 1985. Paleolithic nutrition. A consideration of its nature and current implications. New Engl J Med 312: 283-289 
    2. Aisen PS, Davis KL. 1994. Inflammatory mechanisms in Alz-heimer: Implications for therapy. Am J Psychiat 151: 1105-1113 
    3. Diplock AT, Charleux JI, Crozier-Willi G. 1998. Functional food science and defence against oxidative species. Br J Nutr 80: Suppl 1: S77-112 
    4. Bengmark S. 2001. Nutritional modulation of acute and “chronic” phase response. Nutrition 17: 489-495 
    5. Maes M. 1995. Evidence for an immune response in major depression: a review and hypothesis. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 19: 11-38 
    6. Adlerberth I, Carlsson B, deMan P. 1991. Intestinal coloni-zation with Enterobacteriaceae in Parkistani and Swedish hospital-delivered infants. Acta Pediatr Scand 80: 602-610 
    7. Ahrn S, Nobaek S, Jeppsson B. 1998. The normal Lactoba-cillus flora in healthy human rectal and oral mucosa. J Appl Microbiol 85: 88-94 
    8. Lencner AA, Lencner CP, Mikelsaar ME. 1983. Die quantitative Zusammensetzung der Lactoflora des Verdauung-strakts vor und nach kosmischen Flgen unterschiedlicher Dauer. Die Nahrung 28: 607-613 
    9. Andersson R, Wang X, Ihse I. 1995. The influence of abdo-minal sepsis on acute pancreatitis in rats: A study on mor-tality, permeability, arterial blood pressure and intestinal blood flow. Pancreas 11: 365-373 
    10. Leveau P, Wang X, Soltesz V. 1996. Alterations in intestinal permeability and microflora in experimental acute pancreatitis. Int J Pancrea-tology 20: 119-125 
    11. De Souza LJ, Sampietre SN, Figueiredo S. 1996. Bacterial translocation during acute pancreatitis in rats. (In Portuguese, with English summary) Rev Hosp Clin Fac Med S Paolo 51: 116-120 
    12. Bengmark S. 1998. Ecological control of the gastrointestinal tract. The role of probiotic bacteria. Gut 42: 2-7 
    13. Bengmark S. 1998. Ecoimmunonutrition: A challenge for the third millenium. Nutrition 14: 563-572 
    14. Bengmark S. 1998. Immunonutrition: Role of biosurfactants, fiber and probiotic bacteria. Nutrition 14: 585-594 
    15. Bengmark S. 2000. Gut and the immune system: Enteral nutrition and immunonutrients. In SIRS, MODS and MOF­-systemic inflammatory response syndrome, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, multiple organ failure-pathophysiology, prevention and therapy. Baue AE, Faist E, Fry D, eds. Springer, New York. p 408-424 
    16. Bengmark S. 2000. Refunctionalization of the gut. In SIRS, MODS and MOF -­systemic inflammatory response syndrome, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, multiple organ failure­ - pathophysiology, prevention and therapy. Baue AE, Faist E, Fry D, eds. Springer, New York. p 435-446 
    17. Bengmark S. 2000. Prospect for a new and rediscovered form of therapy: Probiotic and phage. In Fighting infection in the 21st century. Andrew PW, Oystron P, Smith GL, Stewart DE, eds. Blackwells. p 97-132 
    18. Bengmark S. 2000. Bacteria for optimal health. Nutrition 16: 611-615 
    19. Bengmark S. Pre-, pro-, and synbiotics. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care. Under publication 
    20. Bengmark S. 2002. Use of Pro-, Pre- and Synbiotics in the ICU­Future options. In Nutritional Considerations in the Intensive Care Unit­Science, Rationale and Practice. Shikora SA, Martindale RG, Schwaitzberg SD, eds. Aspen. Under publication 
    21. WHO Scientific Working Group on Monitoring and Management of Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Agents. World Health Organisation; Bacterial, Viral Diseases and Immunology, Geneva WHO/CDS/BVI/95.7 
    22. Key FB, Mathers JC. 1995. Digestive adaptations of rats given white bread and cooked haricot beans (Phaseolus vulgaris): large bowel fermentation and digestion of complexes carbohydrates. Brit J Nutr 74: 393-406 
    23. Finegold SM, Sutter VL, Mathisen GE. 1983. Normal indigenous intestinal flora. In Human intestinal microflora in health and disease. Hentges DJ. ed. Academic Press, London. p 3-31 
    24. Adlerberth I, Carlsson B, deMan P. 1991. Intestinal colonization with Enterobacteriaceae in Parkistani and Swedish hospital-delivered infants. Acta Pediatr Scand 80: 602-610 
    25. Tannock, GW. 1997. Probiotic properties of lactic-acid bacteria: plenty of scope for fundamental R and D. Trends in Biotechnology 15: 270-274 
    26. Van Thiel DH, Finkel R, Friedlander L. 1992. The association of IgA deficiency but not IgG or IgM deficiency with a reduced patient and graft survival following liver transplantation. Transplantation 54: 269-273 
    27. Brandtzaeg P. 1995. Molecular and cellular aspects of the secretory immunoglobulin system. 103: 1-19 
    28. Yasui H, Nagaoka N, Mike A. 1992. Detection of Bifidobacterium strains that induce large quantities of IgA. Micr Ecol Health Dis 5: 155-162 
    29. Solis-Pereyra B, Aattouri N, Lemonnier D. 1997. Role of food in the stimulation of cytokine production. Am J Clin Nutr 66: S521-S525 
    30. Lucey DR, Clerici M, Shearer GM. 1996. Type 1 and type 2 cytokine dysregulation in human infections, neoplastic and inflammatory diseases. Clinical Microbiological Review 9: 532-562 
    31. Bjrksten B. 1994. Risk factors in early childhood for the development of atopic diseases. Allergy 49: 400-407 
    32. Miettinen M, Matikainen S, Vuopio-Varkila J. 1998. Lactobacilli and Streptococci induce Interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-18, and gamma interferon production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Infect Immun 66: 6058-6060 
    33. Murosaki S, Yamamoto Y, Ito K. 1998. Heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum L-137 suppresses naturally fed antigen- specific IgE production by stimulation of IL-12 production in mice. J Allerg Clin Immunol 102: 57-64 
    34. Shida K, Makino K, Takamizawa K. 1998. Lactobacillus casei inhibits antigen-induced IgE secretion through regulation of cytokine production in murine splenocyte cultures. Internat Arch Allerg Immunol 115: 278-287 
    35. Lin BF, Huang CC, Chiang BL, Jeng SJ. 1996. Dietary fat influences Ia antigen expression, cytokines and prostaglandin E2 production in immune cells in autoimmune-prone NZBxNZW F1 mice. Brit J Nutr 75: 711-722 
    36. Kato I, Yokokura T, Mutai M. 1988. Correlation between increase in Ia-bearing macrophages and induction of T-cell- dependent antitumor activity by Lactobacillus casei in mice. Cancer, Immunol Immunother 26: 215-221 
    37. Marin ML, Tejada-Simon MV, Lee JH. 1998. Stimulation of cytokine production in clonal macrophage and T-cell models by Streptococcus thermophilus: comparioson with Bifidobacterium sp. and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. J Food Protect 61: 859-864 
    38. Heerdt BG, Houston MA, Augenlicht LH. 1994. Potentiation by specific short-chain fatty acids of differentiation and apoptosis in human colonic carcinoma cell lines. Cancer Research 54: 3288-3294 
    39. Reddy BS. 1998. Prevention of colonic cancer by pre- and probiotics: evidence from laboratory studies. Br J Nutr 89: Suppl 2: S219-S223 
    40. Frame LT, Hart RW, Leakey EA. 1998. Caloric restriction as a mechanism mediating resistance to environmental disease. Environ Health Perspect 106: suppl 1: 313-324 
    41. Malhotra SL. 1968. Studies in blood coagulation, diet and ischemic heart disease in two population groups in India. Brit Heart J 30: 303-308 
    42. Shirabe K, Matsumata T, Shimada M. 1997. A comparison of parenteral hyperalimentation and early enteral feeding regarding systemic immunity after major hepatic resection-- the results of a randomized prospective study. Hepato-Gastr 44: 205-209 
    43. Windsor ACJ, Kanwar S, Li A. 1998. Compared with parenteral nutrition, enteral feeding attenuates the acute phase response, and improves disease severity in acute pancreatitis. Gut 42: 431-435 
    44. Heyman M. 2000. Effect of lactic acid bacteria on diarrheal diseases. J Am Coll Nutr 19: S137-S146 
    45. De Roos NM, Katan MB. 2000. Effects of probiotic bacteria on diarrhea, lipid metabolism, and carcinogenesis: a review of papers published between 1988 and 1998. Am J Clin Nutr 71: 405-411 
    46. Hove H, Borgaard H, Brobech Mortensen PB. 1999. Lactic acid bacteria and human gastrointestinal tract. Eur J Clin Nutr 53: 339-350 
    47. Reid G. 2000. Probiotics in the treatment of diarrheal diseases. Current Infectious Disease Report 2: 78-83 
    48. Guandalini S, Pensabene L, Zikri MA. 2000. Lactobacillus GG administered in oral rehydration solution to children with acute diarrhea: a multicenter European study. J Pediatr Gastr Nutr 30: 54-60 
    49. Oberhelman RA, Gilman RH, Sheen P. 1999. A placebo- controlled trial of Lactobacillus GG to prevent diarrhea in undernourished Peruvian children. J Pediatr 134:15-20 
    50. Du Pont HL. 1999. Prevention of diarrhea by the probiotic Lactobacillus GG. J Pediatr 134: 1-2 
    51. Hoyos AB. 1999. Reduced incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis associated with enteral administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium infantis to neonates in an intensive care unit. Int J Infect Dis 3: 197-202 
    52. Rabbini GH, Teka T, Zaman B. 2001. Clinical studies in persistant diarrhea: dietary management with green banana or pectin in Bangladesh children. Gastroenterology 121: 554- 560 
    53. Bartlett JG. 1992. Antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Clin Infect Dis 15: 573-81 
    54. Elstner CL, Lindsay AN, Book LS. 1983. Lack of relationship of Clostridium difficile to antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children. Pediatr Infect Dis 2: 364-366 
    55. Vanderhoof JA, Whitney DB, Antonson DL. 1999. Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children. J Pediatr 135: 564-568 
    56. Saavendra JM. 1999. Probiotics plus antibiotics; regulating our bacterial environment. J Pediatr 135: 535-537 
    57. Fabia R, Ar'Rajab A, Johansson ML. 1993. Impairment of bacterial flora in human ulcerative colitis and in experimental colitis in the rat. Digestion 54: 248-255 
    58. Fabia R, Ar'Rajab A, Johansson ML. 1993. The effect of exogenous administration of Lactobacillus reuteri R2LC and oat fibre on acetic acid-induced colitis in the rat. Scand J Gastroenterol 28: 155-162 
    59. Favier C, Neut C, Mizon C. 1997. Fecal $\beta$-D-galactosidase and bifidobacteria are decreased in Crohn's disease. Dig Dis Sci 42: 817-822 
    60. Sartor RB. 1999. Microbial factors in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and experimental intestinal inflammation. In Inflammatory bowel diseases. 5th ed. Kirsner JG, ed. Saunders, Philadelphia. p 153-178 
    61. Pathmakanthan S, Thornley JP, Hawkey CJ. 1999. Mucosally associated bacteria flora of the human colon: quantitative and species specific differences between normal and inflamed colonic biopsies. Microb Ecolog Health Dis 11: 169-174 
    62. Venturi A, Gionchetti P, Rizzello F. 1999. Impact on the composition of the faecal flora by a new probiotic preparation: preliminary data on maintenance treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 13:1103-1108 
    63. Gionchetti P, Rizello F, Venturi A. 2000. Oral bacteriotherapy as maintenance treatment in patients with chronic pouchitis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Gastroenterology 119: 305-309 
    64. Sandborn WJ, McLeod R, Jewell DP. 1999. Medical therapy for induction and maintenance of remission in pouchitis: a systemic review. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 5: 33-39 
    65. Meijer HP, Welters CF, Heineman E. 2000. Enteral inulin does not affect epithelial gene expression and cell turnover within the ileoanal pouch. Dis Colon Rectum 43: 1427-34 
    66. Bhatia SJ, Kochar N, Abraham P. 1989. Lactobacillus acidophilus inhibits growth of Campylobacter pylori in vitro. J Clin Microbiol 27: 2328-2330 
    67. Lorca GL, Wadstrm T, Fond de Valdez G, Ljungh A. 2001. Lactobacillus acidophilus autolysins inhibit Helicobacter pylori in vitro. Current Microbiology 42: 39-44 
    68. Canducci F, Armuzzi A, Cremonini F. 2000. A lyophilised and inactivated culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus increases Helicobacter pylori eradication rates. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 14: 1625-1629 
    69. Armuzzi A, Cremonini F, Ojetti V. 2001. Effect of Lactobacillus GG supplementation on antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal side effects during Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: a pilot study. Digestion 63: 1-7 
    70. Armuzzi A, Cremonini F, Bartolozzi F. 2001. The effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus GG on associated gastrointestinal side effects during Helicobacter eradication. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 15: 163-169 
    71. Michetti P, Dorta G, Wiesel PH. 1999. Effect of whey based culture supernatant of Lactobacillus acidophilus (jonsonii) La1 on Helicobacter pylori infections in humans. Digestion 60: 203-209 
    72. Swartz NN. 1994. Hospital-acquired infections: diseases with increasingly limited therapies. Proc Natl Acad Sci 91: 2420- 2427 
    73. Isenmann R, Bchler MW. 1994. Infection and acute pancreatitis. Brit J Surg 81: 1707-1708 
    74. Brawley RL, Weber DJ, Samsa GP. 1989. Multiple nosocomial infections; an incidcence study. Am J Epidemiol 130: 769-780 
    75. Weber DJ, Raasch R, Rutala WA. 1999. Nosocomial infections in the ICU; the growing importance of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Chest 115: 34S-41S 
    76. Vincent JL, Bihari DJ, Suter DM. 1993. The prevalence of nosocomial infection in intensive care units in Europe. Results of the European prevalence of infection in intensive care (EPIC) study. JAMA 274: 639-644 
    77. Weinstein RA. 1991. Epidemiology and control of nosocomial infection in adult ICU. Am J Med 91 suppl: 179-184 
    78. Gomersall CM. 1998. Does the administration of lactobacillus to critically ill patients decrease the severity of multi- organ dysfunction or failure. Thesis for B Sc degree in Health Studies at University of Surrey, Roehampton Institute, School of Life Sciences, London 
    79. Beger HG, Bittner R, Bchler M. 1986. Bacterial contamination of pancreatic necrosis--a prospective clinical study. Gastroenterology 91: 433-438 
    80. Bchler MW, Gloor B, Mller CA. 2000. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis: treatment strategy according to the status of infection. Ann Surg 232: 619-626 
    81. Luiten EJT, Hop WCJ, Endtz HP, Bruining HA. 1998. Prognostic importance of gram-negative intestinal colonization pancreatic infection in severe acute pancreatitis. Intensive Care Med 24: 438-445 
    82. Olh A, Belgyi T, Issekutz A. Early enteral nutrition with specific Lactobacillus and fibre reduces sepsis in severe acute pancreatitis. Submitted for publication 
    83. Rayes N, Hansen S, Boucsein K. Comparison of parenteral and early enteral nutrition with fibre and lactobacilli after major abdominal surgery a prospective randomized trial. Submitted for publication 
    84. Rayes N, Hansen S, Boucsein K. 2001. Early enteral supply of Lactobacillus and fibre vs selective bowel decontamination (SBD)--a controlled trial in liver transplant recipients. Submitted for publication 
    85. Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ. 1996. Antioxidant activities of flavonoids as bioactive components of food. Biochemical Society Transactions 24: 790-95 
    86. Bengmark S. 2001. Nutritional modulation of acute and “chronic” phase response. Nutrition 17: 489-495 
    87. Bengmark S. 2001. Immunomodulation by pro- and prebiotics. Biuoscience Microflora 20: 9-18 

 활용도 분석

  • 상세보기

    amChart 영역
  • 원문보기

    amChart 영역

원문보기

무료다운로드
  • NDSL :
  • 한국식품영양과학회 : 저널
유료다운로드

유료 다운로드의 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 신규 회원가입, 로그인, 유료 구매 등이 필요할 수 있습니다. 해당 사이트에서 발생하는 귀하의 모든 정보활동은 NDSL의 서비스 정책과 무관합니다.

원문복사신청을 하시면, 일부 해외 인쇄학술지의 경우 외국학술지지원센터(FRIC)에서
무료 원문복사 서비스를 제공합니다.

NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 위의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니 담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

이 논문과 함께 이용한 콘텐츠
이 논문과 함께 출판된 논문 + 더보기