본문 바로가기
HOME> 논문 > 논문 검색상세

논문 상세정보

Weightlessness in Water : Its Unexpected Mechanical Effects on Freestyle Swimming

Yanai, Toshimasa    (School of Physical Education, University of Otago  );
  • 초록

    When our body is immersed in water, we experience weightlessness. The degree of weightlessness that we experience varies depending on the proportion of the body immersed in water, being governed by the relationship between the weight of body and the buoyant force acting on the body. Human body during the performance of swimming in no exception to these influences. Swimmers body is subject to a time and position dependent force system. Even the magnitude of the buoyant force acting on the swimmers body at every given instant and the corresponding position of the CB change continuously. The findings of this study support the following conclusions. The buoyancy torque was the primary source of bodyroll exhibited by front crawl swimmers performing at distance pace, accounting for 88 % of the bodyroll. Faster swimmers used buoyancy more effectively to generate bodyroll, partially supporting the postulation that an effective use of buoyancy for bodyroll may reduce the generated hydrodynamic forces to be wasted in non-propulsive directions and maximize forward propulsion.


  • 참고문헌 (21)

    1. Armour, J. & Donnelly, P.M. (1993). The large lungs of elite swimmers: an increased alveolar number? European Respiratory Journal 6, pp.237-247. 
    2. Chatard, J.C., Bourgaoi, B., & Lacour, J.R. (1990a). Passive drag is still a good evaluator of swimming aptitude. European Journal of Applied Physiology 59, pp.399-404. 
    3. Chatard, J.C., Colloimp, C., Maglischo, E., & Maglischo, C. (1990b). Swimming skill and stroking characteristics of front crawl swimmers. International Journal of Sports Medicine 11, pp.156-161. 
    4. Chatard, J.C., Lavoie, J.M., Bourgoin, B., & Lacour, J.R. (1990c). The contribution of passive drag as a determinant of swimming performance. International Journal of Sports Medicine 11, pp.367-372. 
    5. Chatard, J.C., Lavoie, J.M., & Lacour, J.R. (1990d). Analysis of determinants of swimming economy in front crawl. European Journal of Applied Physiology 61, pp.88-92. 
    6. Clauser, C.E., McConville, J.T., & Young, J.W. (1969) Weight, volume, and center of mass of segments of the human body. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH. 
    7. Dapena, J. (1978). A method to determine the angular momentum of a human body about three orthogonal axes passing through its center of gravity. Journal of Biomechanics 11, pp.251-256. 
    8. Drillis, R. & Contini, R. (1966). Body Segment Parameters. Office of Vocational Rehabilitation, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Report 1166-03. N.Y. University School of Engineering and Science, New York, NY. 
    9. Haug, E.J. (1992) Intermediate Dynamics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. 
    10. Hinrichs, R.N. (1990). Adjustments to the segment center of mass proportions of Clauser et al. (1969). Journal of Biomechanics 23, pp.949-951. 
    11. Kreighbaum, E. and Barthels, K. M. (1996). Biomechanics: A qualitative approach for studying human movement (4th Ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon 
    12. McArdle, W.D., Katch, F.I. & Katch, V.L. (1986). Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lea and Febiger. 
    13. McLean, S.P. & Hinrichs, R. (1998). Sex difference in the center of buoyancy location of competitive swimmers. Journal of Sports Science 16, pp.373-383. 
    14. Ogita, F. & Tabata, I. (1992). Oxygen uptake during swimming in a hypobaric hypoxic environment. European Journal of Applied Physiology 65, pp.192-296. 
    15. Pendergast, D.R., Prampero, P.E., Craig Jr., A.B., Wilson, D.R., & Rennie, D.W. (1977). Quantitative analysis of the front crawl in men and women. Journal of Applied Physiology 43, pp.475-479. 
    16. Schleihauf, R.E., Gray, L, & DeRose, J. (1983). Three-dimensional analysis of hand propulsion in the sprint front crawl stroke. In Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming (edited by P. Hollander, P. Huijing and de Groot, G), pp. 173-183. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. 
    17. Town, G.P. & Vanness, J.M. (1990). Metabolic responses to controlled frequency breathing in competitive swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 22, pp.112-116. 
    18. Yanai, T., Hay, J.G., & Gerot, J.T. (1996). Three-dimensional videography with panning periscopes. Journal of Biomechanics 29, pp.673-678. 
    19. Yanai, T. (2001a). The effect of buoyancy in front crawl: Does it really cause the legs to sink? Journal of Biomechanics, 34 (2), pp.235-243 
    20. Yanai, T. (2001b). An effective use of buoyant force for improving the performance of front crawl swimming. In abstracts of the XVIII Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics, p.348 
    21. Zamparo, P., Capelli, C., Termin, B., Pendergast, D.R., & di Prampero, P.E. (1996). Effect of the underwater torque on the energy cost, drag and efficiency of front crawl swimming. European Journal of Applied Physiology 73, pp.195-201. 

 활용도 분석

  • 상세보기

    amChart 영역
  • 원문보기

    amChart 영역

원문보기

무료다운로드
  • NDSL :
유료다운로드

유료 다운로드의 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 신규 회원가입, 로그인, 유료 구매 등이 필요할 수 있습니다. 해당 사이트에서 발생하는 귀하의 모든 정보활동은 NDSL의 서비스 정책과 무관합니다.

원문복사신청을 하시면, 일부 해외 인쇄학술지의 경우 외국학술지지원센터(FRIC)에서
무료 원문복사 서비스를 제공합니다.

NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 위의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니 담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

이 논문과 함께 출판된 논문 + 더보기