본문 바로가기
HOME> 논문 > 논문 검색상세

논문 상세정보

Nutritional Disorders, Analytical Diagnosis and Nutrient Guide for Mulberry, Morus indica L.

Singhal, B.K.    (Regional Sericultural Research Station, Central Silk Board, Miran Sahib   ); Chakraborti, S.    (Regional Sericultural Research Station, Kalimpong   ); Rajan, Mala V.    (Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute   ); Thippeswamy, T.    (Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute  );
  • 초록

    Due to recent scientific innovations in mulberry cultivation, leaf yield has been increased manifold. However, with successive leaf harvest, a quantum drop in leaf yield and quality has been noted. This inturn has affected the silkworm rearing and farmers suffered by the frequent crop failures. This is mainly due to nutrient deficiencies in mulberry leaf. Moreover, no complete information is available about hunger signs of nutritional disorders, analytical diagnosis and critical levels of nutrients required. The present paper, thus, may serve as an important nutrient guide for identification of hunger signs, leaf nutrients status under deficiency and critical levels of the elements namely N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn requirements for higher leaf yield and quality. The leaf nutrient status provided may help chemist for correcting the soil status. Besides, an integration of mulberry intercropping with legumes and applications of neem and castor oil cakes, VA-mycorrhizal inoculation, biofertilizer and vermicompost are suggested as integrated nutrient management for sustainable sericulture industry. Based on the information described in this paper, a model needs to be framed for maintaining continuous supply of nutrients to obtain desired quantity and quality of mulberry leaf for successful silkworm cocoon crop and increasing overall silk productivity.


  • 주제어

    Mulberry .   Mineral nutrition .   Hunger signs .   Analytical diagnosis .   Nutrient guide .   Integrated nutrient management.  

  • 참고문헌 (105)

    1. Balakrishnan, K. (1999) Studies on nutrients deficiency symptoms in chilli (Capsicum annum L.). Indian J. Plant Physiol. 4, 229-231 
    2. Bhargava, B. S., G. B. Raturi and S. S. Hiwale (1990) Leaf sampling in ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lam) for nutritional diagnosis. Singapore J. Pri. Ind. 18, 85-95 
    3. Bojappa, K. M. and B. S. Bhargava (1993) Citrus nutrition; in Advances in Horticulture, Vol. 2 - Field crops. Chadha, K. L. and O. P. Pareek (eds.), pp. 829-852, Malhotra Publishing House, New Delhi, India 
    4. Bongale, U. D. (1995) Chlorosis in mulberry and remedial measures. Indian Silk 34, 34-37 
    5. Bongale, U. D. (1997) Potassium deficiency symptoms in certain important varieties of mulberry (Morus sp.) under field plantation in Kamataka (India). Indian J. Seric. 36, 78-80 
    6. Chakraborti, S. and B. K. Singhal (1996) Seasonal variation in ascorbic acid content of promising mulberry genotypes. Indian J. Plant Physiol. 1, 298-299 
    7. Christiansen, M. N. and C. D. Foy (1979) Fate and function of calcium in tissue. Comm. Soil Sci. Plant Analysis 10, 427-442 
    8. Dandin, S. B., H. K. Basavaraja and N. Sureshkumar (2003) Factors for success of Indian bivoltine sericulture. Indian Silk 41, 5-8 
    9. Dasmahapatra, A. K., M. K. Chakrabarti and A. K. Medda (1989) Effect of potassium iodide, cobalt chloride, calcium chloride and potassium nitrate on protein, RNA and DNA contents of silkgland of silkworm (Bombyx mori L.), Nistari race. Sericologia 29, 355-359 
    10. Epstein, E. (1972) Mineral nutrition of plants: Principles and perspectives. John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York - London - Sydney - Toronto 
    11. Jayaprakashrao, M., K. S. Badiger and G. M. Patil (1998) Boosting silk yield. Indian Textile J. 108, 58-59 
    12. Katiyar, R. S., P. K Das, Y. R. Madhavarao, K M. Vijayakumari and M. T. Himanthraj (2000) Response of established mulberry garden to VA-mycorrhizal inoculation. Seminar on Sericulture Technology: An Appraisal. June 6-7, Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Mysore, India 
    13. Kumar, N. and P. N. Sharma (1995) Effect of phosphorus deficiency stress on photosynthesis in mulberry (Morus alba L.). Indian J. Expt. Bioi. 33, 616-619 
    14. Lundegardh, H. (1943) Leaf analysis as a guide to soil fertilizer. Nature 151, 310 
    15. Machii, H. and K. Katagiri (1991) Varietal differences in nutritive values of mulberry leaves for rearing silkworms. JARQ 25, 202-208 
    16. Majumdar, A. C. (1982) Note on the physiological effects on the growth and reproduction of silkworm fed on mulberry leaves soaked in potassium iodide. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 52, 250-252 
    17. Maynard, D. N. (1979) Nutritional disorders of vegetable crops: a review. J. Plant Nutrition 1, 1-23 
    18. Maynard, I. A., I. K Loosli, H. P. Hintz and R. G. Warner (1984) The inorganic elements and their metabolism; in Animal nutrition. pp. 202-210. Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co., India 
    19. MiIIaway, R. M. and L. Wiersholm (1979) Calcium and metabolic disorders. Comm. Soil Sci. Plant Analysis 10, 1-28 
    20. Mishra, R. K, S. Ravindran, Y. R. Madhvarao and L. Rajanna (2002) Efficacy of drip irrigation in mulberry during nonrainy period; in Advances in Indian sericulture research. Dandin, S. B. and V. P. Gupta (eds.), pp. 224-227, Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Mysore, India 
    21. Pukhalskaya, N. V. (1996) Mineral nutrition of plants in connectio with global increase of atmospheric CO$_2$ concentration. Sel'skokhozya - istvennaya - Biologiya 1, 27-40 
    22. Radha, N. V, P. Nagarajan and S. Jayaraj (1988) Mineral deficiency in mulberry plants, Morus sp. and its effect on economic characters of silkworm, Bombyx mori L. Madras Agric. J. 73, 384-390 
    23. Rai, M. M., M. K. Rathod and A. M. Khurad (2002) Improvement in economic characters of silkworm, Bombyx mori L. by folic acid administration. Entomon 27, 99-104 
    24. Rodriguez, D., G. E. Santa-maria and M. C. Pomar (1994) Phosphorus deficiency affects the early development of wheat plants. J. Agronomy Crop Sci. 173, 69-72 
    25. Shankar, M. A. and K. Shivashankar (1994) Growth, development and leaf yield in S-54 mulberry as influenced by deficiency of secondary nutrients. Sericologia 34, 353-358 
    26. Singhal, B. K., V. R. Mala and V. Kumar (1998) Indian Sericulture - Problems and prospects. Modern Textile J. 4, 27-35 
    27. Singhvi, N. R., J. Kodandaramaiah, M. Munirathnam Reddy, R. S. Katiyar, A. Sarkar and R. K. Datta (2002b) Study on nutrient deficiency in mulberry variety S-36 under field conditions. Sericologia 42, 53-58 
    28. Subbaswamy, M. R., B. Srinath, B. V. Naidu, A. Venugopal, N. Suryanarayana, N. R. Singhvi and R. K. Datta (2000) Soil fertility - a major reason for yield gap in sericulture. Indian Silk 39, 5-6 
    29. Subburathinam, K. M. and J. Sulochanachetty (1991) Effect of fortification of mulberry leaves with minerals to silkworm, Bombyx mori L. Indian J. Seric. 30, 121-123 
    30. Zorn, W. (1995) Potassium deficiency in potatoes. Kartoffelbau 46, 50-51 
    31. Singhal, B. K., V. R. Mala, A. Sarkar and R. K. Datta (1999a) Nutritional disorders of mulberry (Morus spp.) III. Leaf nutrient guide for secondary nutrients. Sericologia 39, 599-609 
    32. Chakraborti, S., M. R. Subramanyam, B. K. Singhal and R. K. Datta (1997) Nutrient deficiency management in mulberry A key for identification of hunger signs. Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Mysore, India 
    33. Gowda, D. W. (1993) A study on adoption behaviour of big, small and marginal sericulturists and their characteristics in Kolar district. Masters Thesis, Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Mysore 
    34. LalIu, H., K Sexena and H. Shankar (1997) Critical sulphur requirement in plants and in nutrients medium for yield of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) Czern & Coss, Indian J. Plant Physiol. 2, 54-58 
    35. Chakraborty, M. K. and A. K. Medda (1978) Effect of potassium iodide on silkworms (Bombyx mori L.) Nistari race. Sci. Cult. 44, 231-233 
    36. Grundon, N. J., D. G. Edwards, P. N. Takkar, C. J. Asher and R. B. Clark (1987) Nutritional disorders of grain sorghum. ACIAR Monograph No. 2, Australian centre for International agricultural research, Canberra, Australia 
    37. Jayashankar, A., N. Raja, K. Elumalal, M. Jayakumar, A. Thangamani and S. Ignachimuthu (2001) Bio-energetics of silkworm, Bombyx mori L. reared on fortificated mulberry leaves. J. Interacademicia 5, 340-345 
    38. Johanson, F. R. (1980) Hunger in strawberries. K & H Printers Inc., Washington, USA 
    39. Singhal, B. K., A. Dhar, S. M. H. Qadri and M. M. Ahsan (2001b) Mulberry nutrition for development of sericulture in Jammu and Kashmir. Asian Textile J. 10, 35-42 
    40. Gutierrez, M. V. (1997) Mineral nutrition of plants: advances and applications. Agronomia - Costarricense 21, 127-137 
    41. Horst, M. (1995) Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic Press, London 
    42. Singhal, B. K., A. Dhar, Aradhana Sharma, S. M. H. Qadri and M. M. Ahsan (2001a) Sericultural by-products for various valuable commercial products as emerging bio science Industry. Sericologia 41, 369-391 
    43. Subbaswamy, M. R., N. R. Singhvi, S. B. Magadum, K. Vedavyasan, E. B. Srinivasan, M. M. Reddy, A. Sarkar and R. K. Datta (2001) Mulberry nutrition and flacherie occurrence at field level. Indian Silk 40, 13-14 
    44. Thangavelu, K. and H. R. Bania (1990) Preliminary investigation on the effects of minerals in the rain water on the growth and reproduction of silkworm, Bombyx mori L. Indian J. Seric. 29, 37-43 
    45. Brown, J. C. (1979) Genetic improvement and nutrient uptake in plants. Bio. Sci. 25, 289-292 
    46. Horie, Y. and M. Watanabe (1980) Recent advances in sericulture. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 25, 49-7 I 
    47. Rengel, Z. (1999) Mineral nutrition of crops: fundamental mechanisms and implications. University of W. Australia, Perth, Australia 
    48. Viswanath, A. P. and K. Krishnamoorthy (1982) Effect offoliar spray of micronutrients on the larval development and cocoon characters of silkworm, Bombyx mori L. Indian J. Seric. 22, 1-6 
    49. Bongale, U. D. and Lingaiah (1998) Macro and micronutrient status of mulberry garden soils in a bivoltine seed area. Indian J. Seric. 37, 73-75 
    50. Miyashita, V. (1986) A report on mulberry cultivation and training methods suitable to bivoltine rearing in Karnataka, Central Silk Board, Bangalore, India 
    51. Singh, K. P. (1997) Micronutrients in mulberry (Morus alba L.) cultivation - an overview. Sericologia 37, 603-617 
    52. Loknath, R. and K. Shivashankar (1985) Effect of foliar application of magnesium and micronutrients to mulberry on the quality and production of cocoons. Indian J. Seric. 21, 40-41 
    53. Marschner, H. (1995) Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Institute of Plant Nutrition, Stuttgart, Germany 
    54. Chamundeswari, P. and K. Radhakrishnaiah (1994) Effect of zinc and nickel on the larval and cocoon characters of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. Sericologia 34, 327-330 
    55. Subburathinam, K. M., M. Krishnan and 1. Sulochanachetty (1993) Effect of minerals on the bioenergetics of the silkworm Bombyx mori. Sericologia 33, 121-123 
    56. Chowdary, N. B., Govindaiah and D. D. Sharma (2003) Impact of balanced fertilizers on mulberry leaf yield. Indian Silk 42, 5-7 
    57. Dandin, S. B., 1. Jayaswal and K. Giridhar (2000) Handbook of sericulture technologies. Central Silk Board, Bangalore, India 
    58. Sannappa, B., M. C. Devaiah and R. Govindan (2002) Influence of methods and frequencies of feeding rainfed mulberry raised with varied nitrogen levels on rearing performance of Bombyx mori; in Advances in Indian sericulture research. Dandin,S. B. and V. P. Gupta (eds.), pp. 291-295, Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Mysore, India 
    59. Singhal, B. K., V. R. Mala and S. Chakraborti (1999b) Nutritional disorders of mulberry (Morus spp.) I. Effect of deficiencies on physiological and biochemical processes. Philippine J. Sci. 128, 161-170 
    60. Tandon, H. L. S. (2002) Dictionary of secondary and micronutrients. Fertilizer Development and Consultation Organization, New Delhi, India 
    61. Kaleeswan, R. K. and K Kumaraswamy (1998) Crop responses to sulphur application. Micronutrient News 12, 2-3 
    62. Raturi, G. B. and B. S. Bhargava (1993) Leaf sampling guide for nutrient management in ber. Indian J. Horticult. 50, 202-208 
    63. Singhal, B. K., S. Chakraborti, V. R. Mala, A. Sarkar and R. K. Datta (2000a) Photosynthesis for crop improvement in mulberry (Morus spp.) - a review. Sericologia 40, 27-55 
    64. Subburathinam, K. M., V. Kabila and J. Sulochanachetty (1990) Mineral spray can increase cocoon quality. Indian Silk 28, 35-36 
    65. Atkinson, D., J. E. Jackson, R. O. Sharples and W. M. Waller (1980) Mineral nutrition of fruit trees. Butterworths, London 
    66. Katiyar, R. S., P. K Das, P. C. Choudhury, A Ghosh, G. B. Singh and R. K Datta (1995) Response of irrigated mulberry (Morus alba L.) to VA-mycorrhizal inoculation under graded doses of phosphorus. Plant Soil 170, 33 I-337 
    67. Shylaja, B. M. (1996) Influence of different levels of nitrogen on physiological and biochemical parameters on leaf quality in some promising mulberry (Morus spp.) varieties. Masters Thesis, University of Mysore, Mysore, India 
    68. Tsuneyama, I. and Y. Tanaka (2001) Effect of CaCO$_3$on the feeding behaviour of the newly hatched larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. J. Seric. Sci. Jpn 70, 97-101 
    69. Dadmal, S. M., S. K. Aherkar, M. SaJid and D. N. Sarnaik (2001) Preliminary studies on the effect of ascorbic acid enriched mulberry leaves on Bombyx mori L. Insect Environ. 7, 40 
    70. Fathima, P. S., P. K. Das and R. S. Katiyar (2000) Effect of different levels and sources of phosphorus on VA-mycorrhizal root colonization and spore load in mulberry (Morus alba L.). Crop Res. 20, 504-508 
    71. Gowda, Raje (2002) Impact of Seripro on cocoon production and productivity in silkworm, Bombyx mori L.; in Advances in Indian sericulture research. Dandin, S. B. and V. P. Gupta (eds.), pp. 264-266, Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Mysore, India 
    72. Ito, T (1961) Effect of dietary ascorbic acid on the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. Nature 192, 95 I-952 
    73. Mengel, K and E. A Krikby (1978) Principles of plant nutrition. International Potash Institute, Switzerland 
    74. Sunder Raj, S., Neelu Nangia and K. P. Chinnaswamy (2002) Correlation co-efficients of economic traits of silkworm, Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera:Bombycidae) reared on the leaves enriched with protein supplements; in Advances in Indian sericulture research. Dandin, S. B. and V. P. Gupta (eds.), pp. 332-335, Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Mysore, India 
    75. Viswanath, A. P. (1979) Effect of foliar spray of micronutrients on the yield and quality of mulberry (Morus alba L.). Masters Thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India 
    76. Asher, C. J. and M. T. Lee (1975) Nutritional disorders in ginger. University of Queensland, St. Lucia 
    77. Miyoshi, T., F. Miyazawa and O. C. Shimizu (1978) Effect of heavy metals on mulberry plant and silkworm. IV. The relation between different compounds of heavy metals by the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. J. Seric. Sci. Jpn 47, 101-107 
    78. Shankar, M. A., K. Shivashankar and M. C. Devaiah (1994) Effect of feeding mulberry leaves deficient in secondary nutrients on larval growth, development, cocoon weight and silk quality. Sericologia 34, 511-518 
    79. Bongale, U. D., M. Krishna and Chaluvachari (1996) Effect of multinutrient foliar spray on chlorosis in M-5 variety of mulberry. Indian J. Seric. 35, 9-12 
    80. Guo, J. H., Z. D. Niu, J. S. Mel, X. Q. Xia, M. Hu and Y. Z. Wang (2001) Effect of NaHSO$^3$ on mulberry (Morus alba) photosynthesis and silkworm (Bombyx mori) cocoon yield and quality. Sericologica 27, 83-86 
    81. Ito, T. and M. Nimura (1966) Nutrition of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. XII. Nutritive effect of minerals. Bull. Sericult. Exp. Sta. 20, 363-374 
    82. Manimegalai, S., A. Subramanian and N. Chandramohan (2002) Enhancement of cocoon yield in silkworm, Bombyx mori L. by protein supplementation in shoot rearing. Madras Agric. J. 89, 400-402 
    83. Bergmann, W. (1992) Nutritional disorders of plants - Development, visual and analytical diagnosis, Gustav Fischer, New York 
    84. Ito, T and N. Arai (1965) Nutrition of the silkworm Bombyx mori IX. Further studies on the nutritive effects of ascorbic acid. Bull. Sericult. Exp. Sta. 20, I- I9 
    85. Singh, M. V. (1999) Micronutrient deficiencies in Indian soils. Micronutrient news 13, 1-3 
    86. Chikkaswamy, B. K., M. Shivashankar and H. P. Puttaraju (2000) Effect of foliar spray of micro-nutrients on different mulberry varieties in relation to silkworm cocoon characters; in Moriculture in tropics. Chinnaswamy, K. P., R. Govindan, N. K. Krishnaprasad and D. N. R. Reddy (eds.), pp.l32-134, Department of Sericulture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore and Seri 2000, Swiss Agency for Development and Co-operation, Bangalore, India 
    87. Shankar, M. A. (1997) Handbook of mulberry nutrition. Department of Sericulture, UAS, Bangalore and Multiplex, Bangalore, India 
    88. Bose, P. C. N. R. Singhvi and R. K. Datta (1995) Effect of micronutrients on the biochemical parameters of mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaf. Sericologia 35, 65-69 
    89. Singh, K. P., R. S. Teotia and S. K. Sen (1994) Role of secondary macronutrients in mulberry cultivation. Sericologia 34, 401-413 
    90. Horie, Y.,K Watanabe and T. Ito (1967) Nutrition of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. XVIII. Quantitative requirements for potassium, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc. Bull. Sericult. Exp. Sta. 22, 18I - I 93 
    91. Kanwar, J. S. (1978) Soil fertility: Theory and Practice. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, India 
    92. Magadum, S. B., M. A. Hooli and V. B. Magadum (1992) Effect of feeding copper sulphate on the economic parameters of the polyvoltine silkworm, Bombyx mori L. Sericologia 32, 395-399 
    93. Singhvi, N. R., J. Kodandaramaiah, M. Munirathnam Reddy, R. S. Katiyar and A. Sarkar (2002a) Symptomatological study of nutrient deficiency in mulberry variety V-I under field conditions. Indian J. Seric. 41, 66-69 
    94. Zende, G. K. (1998) Utility of micronutrients in increasing sugarcane and sugar productivity in maharashtra. Micronutrient News 12, 1-3 
    95. Takagishi, H., K. Shirata, I. Kawanchi, K. Watanabe and Y. Horie (1985) Effect of fortification on leaf yield and quality of mulberry. Bull. Sericult. Exp. Sta. Jpn 30, 65-79 
    96. Bhargava, B. S. and K. L. Chadha (1988) Leaf nutrient guide for fruit and plantation crops. Fertilizer News 33, 21-29 
    97. Datta Gupta, S., C. Roychaudhuri and I. D. Chatterjee (1972) Incapability of L-ascorbic acid synthesis by insects. Arch. Biochem. Biophy. 152, 889-890 
    98. Murali, K, S. Thimme Gowda and Malleshaiah (2000) Effect of method of pruning and sulphur source on cocoon characters and silk quality; in Moriculture in tropics. Chinnaswamy, K. P., R. Govindan, N. K. Krishnaprasad and D. N. R. Reddy (eds.), pp. 103-105, Department of Sericulture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore and Seri 2000, Swiss Agency for Development and Co-operation, Bangalore, India 
    99. Shankar, A. A. and A. A. Absar (1995) Foliar treatment of urea and micro nutrients on mulberry and silkworm. Sericologia 35, 713-720 
    100. Blarney, F. P. C., D. G. Edwards and C. J. Asher (1987) Nutritional disorders of sunflower, University of Queensland, Australia 
    101. Singhal, B. K. and V. R. Mala (1998) An insight into silkworm's food. Indian Textile J. 108, 86-88 
    102. Aqueel, S. A., R. K. Mishra, Dayananda, H. Jayararn, S. Ravindran, L. Rajanna and Y. R. Madhavarao (2000) In situ soil moisture conservation technology for mulberry cultivaton under rainfed conditions. Seminar on Sericulture Technology: An Appraisal. June 6-7, Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Mysore, p. 39 
    103. Asher, C. J., D. G. Edwards and R. H. Howeler (1980) Nutritional disorders of cassava. University of Queensland, St. Lucia 
    104. Menon, K. K. G. and H. C. Srivastava (1984) Increasing plant productivity through improved photosynthesis. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 93, 339-378 
    105. Singhal, B. K., V. R. Mala, A. Sarkar and R. K. Datta (2000b) Nutritional disorders of mulberry. II. Leaf nutrient guide for N, P and K under tropical condition; in Moriculture in tropics. Chinnaswamy, K. P., R. Govindan, N. K. Krishnaprasad and D. N. R. Reddy (eds.), pp.109-113, Department of Sericulture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore and Seri 2000, Swiss Agency for Development and Co-operation, Bangalore, India 

 활용도 분석

  • 상세보기

    amChart 영역
  • 원문보기

    amChart 영역

원문보기

무료다운로드
유료다운로드

유료 다운로드의 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 신규 회원가입, 로그인, 유료 구매 등이 필요할 수 있습니다. 해당 사이트에서 발생하는 귀하의 모든 정보활동은 NDSL의 서비스 정책과 무관합니다.

원문복사신청을 하시면, 일부 해외 인쇄학술지의 경우 외국학술지지원센터(FRIC)에서
무료 원문복사 서비스를 제공합니다.

NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 위의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니 담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

이 논문과 함께 출판된 논문 + 더보기