A Study on Effects of Artificial Structures on Bryophyte Diversity in Urban Greenery
It is important to consider urban parks and greenery not only from the viewpoint of amenity or aesthetics but also from the viewpoint of biodiversity. In this study, we focused on bryophytes (mosses), and analyzed how existence of artificial structures in urban greeney, such as concrete curbs and stone walls, affect species diversity of bryophytes. Kyoto Gyoen in Kyoto City, western Japan, was selected as the study site. In consideration of kinds of substrates on which bryophytes grow, microhabitats of Kyoto Gyoen were divided into ten types including concrete curbs and stone walls. In each type of microhabitats, we selected the area where bryophyte diversity was highest, and established a quadrat for bryophyte flora survey. Our results showed that the number of bryophyte species and growth forms and the value of diversity indices on concrete curbs or stone walls were higher than the averages of those. The bryophyte species were divided into the four groups by TWINSPAN as follows: Group A (epiphyte species), Group B (rocky species), Group C (roadsides, grassland or forest species), and Group D (waterside species). Bryophytes classified into Group B (rocky species) were mainly recorded on concrete curbs or stone walls. It was considered that the existence of artificial structures (concrete curbs and stone walls) provided favorite habitats for the bryophytes classified into Group B (rocky species), which mainly grows on concrete or rocks, and enhanced species diversity of bryophytes in Kyoto Gyoen.
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