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식물유래 2차 대사물질의 병충해 및 잡초 방제효과
Pathogen, Insect and Weed Control Effects of Secondary Metabolites from Plants

김종범   (농업생명공학연구원 신기능소재개발팀CC0187576  );
  • 초록

    농작물이 병해충 및 잡초 등에 의하여 피해를 받게 되면 농업생산성은 상당히 저하된다. 따라서 농업생산성을 높이기 위하여 합성농약을 과용해 왔고, 이로 인하여 토양의 질과 농업환경이 파괴되는 결과를 초래하고 있어서 지속적인 농업이 점차 어려워지고 있다. 오늘날의 농업은 농업환경의 파괴를 최소화하고 농산물의 안전성을 확보함과 동시에 생산성을 증대해야하는 복합적인 문제에 직면해 있다. 한편, 식물은 일반적으로 생존하기 위하며 외부의 침입으로부터 자신을 보호하거나 자신의 영역을 확보하기 위하며 다양한 종류의 2차대사물질을 생산하고 방출한다. 병원균이 침입했을 때 식물이 생산하는 항생물질인 phytoalexin으로는 화본과 식물의 경우 flavonoid계와 diterpenoid계의 물질을 생성하고, 쌍자엽 식물은 감염된 병원균의 종류에 상관없이 Leguminosae과는 flavonoids계, Cruciferae과는 indole 유도체, Solanaceae과는 sesquiterpenoid계, Umbelliferae과는 coumarin계 물질들을 생성하여 병원균에 저항성을 가진다. 곤충의 생리작용을 저해하거나 섭생을 싫어하게 하는 기능의 물질로는 terpene계의 pyrethrin, azadirachtin, limonin, cedrelanoid, toosendanin, fraxinellone/dictamnine 등이 있으며, alkaloid계로서는 terpenoid와 alkaloid가 결합된 sesquiterpene pyridine 및 norditerpenoids alkaloids와 azepine계, amide계, loline계, stemofoline계, pyrrolizidine계 alkaloids 등이 있다. 식물은 또한 자신의 영역을 확보하기 위하여 다른 식물의 생장을 저해하는 물질을 생성하는데 여기에는 terpene계의 essential oil 및 sesquiterpene lactone과 이외에 benzoxazinoids, glucosinolate, quassinoid, cyanogenic glycoside, saponin, sorgolennone, juglone 등 다수의 2차 대사물질들이 있다. 이와 같은 기능의 2차 대사물질을 병해충 및 잡초 방제에 직, 간접으로 이용하는 것은 친환경농업의 한 가지 방법일 수 있다. 그러나 천연물질들은 자연계에서 쉽게 분해되어 효율이 떨어지는 경우가 많고 식물을 통하여 생산하는데도 한계가 있다. 따라서 보다 안전성과 효율성이 뛰어난 2차 대사물질을 찾아내는 연구와 아울러 방제기능이 있는 물질의 생합성경로를 구명하고 대사공학적으로 이용하므로 병해충에 저항성이 있고 잡초 방제효과를 갖는 형질전환 식물을 육성하는 연구가 지속적으로 이루어져야 할 것이다.


    Pathogens, insects and weeds have significantly reduced agricultural productivity. Thus, to increase the productivity, synthetic agricultural chemicals have been overused. However, these synthetic compounds that are different from natural products cannot be broken down easily in natural systems, causing the destruction of soil quality and agricultural environments and the gradually difficulty in continuous agriculture. Now agriculture is faced with the various problems of minimizing the damage in agricultural environments, securing the safety of human health, while simultaneously increasing agricultural productivity. Meanwhile, plants produce secondary metabolites to protect themselves from external invaders and to secure their region for survival. Plants infected with pathogens produce antibiotics phytoalexin; monocotyledonous plants produce flavonoids and diterpenoids phytoalexins, and dicotylodoneous plant, despite of infected pathogens, produce family-specific phytoalexin such as flavonoids in Leguminosae, indole derivatives in Cruciferae, sesquitepenoids in Solanaceae, coumarins in Umbelliferae, making the plant resistant to specific pathogen. Growth inhibitor or antifeedant substances to insects are terpenoids pyrethrin, azadirachtin, limonin, cedrelanoid, toosendanin and fraxinellone/dictamnine, and terpenoid-alkaloid mixed compounds sesquiterpene pyridine and norditerpenoids, and azepine-, amide-, loline-, stemofoline-, pyrrolizidine-alkaloids and so on. Also plants produces the substances to inhibit other plant growths to secure the regions for plant itself, which is including terpenoids essential oil and sesquiterpene lactone, and additionally, benzoxazinoids, glucosinolate, quassinoid, cyanogenic glycoside, saponin, sorgolennone, juglone and lots of other different of secondary metabolites. Hence, phytoalexin, an antibiotic compound produced by plants infected with pathogens, can be employed for pathogen control. Terpenoids and alkaloids inhibiting insect growth can be utilized for insect control. Allelochemicals, a compound released from a certain plant to hinder the growth of other plants for their survival, can be also used directly as a herbicides for weed control as well. Therefore, the use of the natural secondary metabolites for pest control might be one of the alternatives for environmentally friendly agriculture. However, the natural substances are destroyed easily causing low the pest-control efficacy, and also there is the limitation to producing the substances using plant cell. In the future, effects should be made to try to find the secondary metabolites with good pest-control effect and no harmful to human health. Also the biosynthetic pathways of secondary metabolites have to be elucidated continuously, and the metabolic engineering should be applied to improve transgenics having the resistance to specific pest.


  • 주제어

    2차 대사물질 .   친환경농업 .   살균제 .   살충제 .   제초제 .   천연물질.  

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