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Processing Flaxseed for Food and Feed Uses

Wiesenborn, Dennis    (Agricultural & Biosystems Engineering Department, North Dakota State University   ); Tostenson, Kristi    (Agricultural & Biosystems Engineering Department, North Dakota State University   ); Kangas, Nancy    (Agricultural & Biosystems Engineering Department, North Dakota State University   ); Zheng, Yun-Ling    (Agricultural & Biosystems Engineering Department, North Dakota State University   ); Hall III, Clifford    (Cereal & Food Sciences Dept., North Dakota State University   ); Niehaus, Mary    (Cereal & Food Sciences Dept., North Dakota State University   ); Jarvis, Paul    (Aquaculture Research Institute, University of Idaho   ); Schwarz, Jurgen    (Food Science & Technology Program, University of Maryland-Eastern Shore   ); Twombly, Wesley    (Northern Crops Institute, North Dakota State University  );
  • 초록

    Flaxseed is outstanding for lignans and oil rich in ${\alpha}$ -linolenic acid which protect against several major illnesses. Better understanding of processing and storage characteristics of flaxseed will increase options for food use. Lignans and oil are found in the hull and embryo, respectively. Comparison of pearling and impact-dehulling processes for separation of lignan and oil-rich fractions showed the impact process was less effective, but easier to scale-up. Screw-pressing embryo reduced oil yield compared to whole seed, but doubled productivity and sharply reduced frictional heating of the oil. Flaxseed hull and embryo, also whole, ground and steamed-ground samples, were stable up to 30 weeks in closed containers at $23^{\circ}C$ . Steamed-ground samples in open trays at $40^{\circ}C$ deteriorated markedly (peroxide value > 100 by 22 weeks); yet, whole seed remained stable. Incorporation of 18% flaxseed embryo into yellow perch feed increased ${\alpha}$ -linolenic acid to 13 to l4% of muscle and liver lipids, compared to 0.5 to 0.7% in the no-embryo control. Feed conversion ratio, weight gain, and survival were similar. These studies are helping to establish the technological base for processing and utilizing flaxseed and flaxseed fractions to improve human diets.


  • 주제어

    aquaculture .   ${\alpha}$-linolenic acid .   dehulling .   flaxseed .   oxidative stability.  

  • 참고문헌 (16)

    1. Flaxseed, lignans, and cancer;Flaxseed in Human Nutrition , Thompson, L.U.;Thompson, L.U.(ed.);Cunnane, S.C.(ed.) , / v.,pp.194-222,
    2. ${\alpha}$-Linolenic acid and heart disease;Flaxseed in Human Nutrition , Li, D.;Attar-Bashi, N.;Sinclair, A.J.;Thompson, L.U.(ed.);Cunnane, S.C.(ed.) , / v.,pp.245-259,
    3. Flaxseed products for disease prevention;Functional Foods Biochemical & Processing Aspects , Oomah, B.D.;Mazza, G.;Mazza, G.(ed.) , / v.,pp.91-138,
    4. Distribution of fatty acids within the seed of flax , Dorrell, D.G. , Canadian J. Plant Sci. / v.50,pp.71-75,
    5. Studies on linseed (Linum usitatissimum) as a protein source for poultry. I. Processes of demucilaging and dehulling of linseed and evaluation of processed materials by chemical analysis and with rats and chickens , Mandokhot, V.M.;Singh, N. , J. Food Sci. Technol. / v.16,pp.25-31,
    6. Continuous, abrasive method for mechanical fractionation of flaxseed , Wiesenborn, D.;Tostenson, K.;Kangas, N. , J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. / v.80,pp.295-300,
    7. National organic program final rule , Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA , Federal Register / v.65,pp.80547-80684,
    8. Fractionation of flaxseed with a batch dehuller , Oomah, B.D.;Mazza, G. , Ind. Crops Prod. / v.9,pp.19-27,
    9. A dry mechanical method for concentrating the lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside in flaxseed , Madhusudhan, B.;Wiesenborn, D.;Schwarz, J.;Tostenson, K.;Gillespie, J. , Lebensm. Wiss. Technol. / v.33,pp.268-275,
    10. Processing of flaxseed fiber, oil, protein, and lignan;Flaxseed in Human Nutrition , Oomah, B.D.;Thompson, L.U.(ed.);Cunnane, S.C.(ed.) , / v.,pp.363-386,
    11. Screw pressing of whole and dehulled flaxseed for organic oil , Zheng, Y.;Wiesenborn, D.;Kangas, N.;Tostenson, K. , J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. / v.80,pp.1039-1045,
    12. Influence of moisture content and cooking on screw pressing crambe seed , Singh, K.K.;Wiesenborn, D.;Tostenson, K.;Kangas, N. , J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. / v.79,pp.165-170,
    13. Flaxseed in arctic charr and rainbow trout nutrition;Flaxseed in Human Nutrition , Dick, T.A.;Yang, X.;Cunnane, S.C.(ed.);Thompson, L.U.(ed.) , / v.,pp.295-314,
    14. Official Methods and Recommended Practices , AOCS , / v.,pp.,
    15. Storage stability of milled flaxseed , Malcolmson, L.;Przybylski, R.;Daun, J. , J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. / v.77,pp.235-238,
    16. Processing and cooking effects on lipid content and stability of ${\alpha}$-linolenic acid in spaghetti containing ground flaxseed , Manthey, F.A.;Lee, R.E.;Hall, C.A. III. , J. Agric. Food Chem. / v.50,pp.1668-1671,

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