Environmental Impacts on Concentrate Feed Supply Systems for Japanese Domestic Livestock Industry as Evaluated by a Life-cycle Assessment Method
The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the environmental load of two different concentrate feed supply systems to the Japanese domestic livestock industry using the Life-cycle Assessment (LCA) method. The current system was defined as that requiring 11.469 million tons of corn imported from the US by sea transport and supplied as concentrate feed to the Japanese domestic livestock industry. The new system proposed by Kaku et al. in 2004 was defined as where 802,830 tons of US imported corn would not be planted in US and would be replaced by barley planted in 278 thousand ha of Japanese domestic land left fallow for the past year. In this case, 909,000 tons of domestic harvest barley would have been supplied as concentrate feed to the Japanese domestic livestock industry in 2000. The activities taken into account within the two system boundaries were three stages: concentrate feed production, feed transportation and gas emission from the soil by chemical fertilizer. Finished compost was regarded as organic fertilizer and was put instead of chemical fertilizers within the system boundary. Adoption of this new concentrate feed supply system by the Japanese domestic livestock industry could reduce 78,462 tons $CO_2$ -equivalents of global warming potential, 347 tons $SO_2$ -equivalents of acidification potential, 54 tons $PO_4$ -equivalents of eutrophication potential and 0.842 million GJ as energy consumption below 2,000 levels. This LCA study comparing two Japanese domestic livestock concentrate feed supply systems showed that the stage of feed transport contributed most to global warming and the stage of emission from the soil contributed most to acidification and eutrophication. The Japanese domestic livestock industry could participate in emissions trading with $CO_2$ -equivalents reduced by shifting from some imported US corn as a concentrate feed to domestic barley planted in land left fallow. In that case the Japanese government could launch emissions trading in accordance with Kyoto Protocol in the future.
- Bouwman, A. F., D. S. Lee, W. A. H. Asman, F. J. Dentener, K. W. Van Der Hoek and J. G. J. Oliver. 1997. A global highresolution emission inventory for ammonia. Global Biochem. Cycles. 11:561-587.
- de Boer, I. J. M. 2003. Environmental impact assessment of conventional and organic milk production. Livest. Prod. Sci. 80:69-77.
- EIA. 2003. Annual Energy Review. 2001. Energy Information Administration, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC.
- Hass, G., F. Wetterich and U. Kopke. 2001. Comparing intensive, extensified and organic grassland farming in southern Germany by process life cycle assessment. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 83:43-53.
- IPCC. 2001. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge Univ. Press, Port Chester, NY.
- ISO. 1998. Environmental management-Life cycle assessment: Goal and scope definition. ISO 14041. Int. Standards Org. Brussels, Belgium.
- ISO. 2000b. Environmental management-Life cycle assessment: Life cycle interpretation. ISO 14043. Int. Standards Org., Brussels, Belgium.
- United Nations. 1997. Kyoto protocol to the United Nations framework convention on climate change. NY. USA.
- Cederberg, C. and B. Mattsson. 2000. Life cycle assessment of milk production-a comparison of conventional and organic farming. J. Cleaner Prod. 8:49-60.
- Ministry of the Environment (Japan). 2004. Statistics of Environment (2004). 46-53. Tokyo, Japan.
- Eichner, M. J. 1990. Nitrous oxide emissions from fertilized soils: summary of available data. J. Environ. Qual. 19:272-280.
- Department for Environmental, Food and Rural Affairs (United Kingdom). 2001. UK Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme 2002. London, United Kingdom.
- JEMAI. 2000. JEMAI-LCA. Japan Environ. Manag. Assoc. Indust., Tokyo, Japan.
- JNOA. 1990. World-Wide Distance Chart. 3rd ed. Japan Navigating Officers’ Association, Kaibundo, Tokyo, Japan.
- Pimental, D. 198990. Handbook of Energy Utilization in Agriculture. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
- Heijungs, R., J. Guinee, G. Huppes, R. M. Lankreijer, H. A. Udo de Haes, A. Wegener Sleeswijk, A. M. M. Ansems, P. G. Eggels, R. Van Duin and H. P. De Goede. 1992. Environmental life-cycle assessment of products-Guide. Center of Environmental Science (CML). Leiden Univ., Leiden, The Netherlands.
- Eide, M. H. and T. Ohlsson. 1998. A comparison of two different approaches to inventory analysis of dairies. Int. J. LCA. 3:209-215.
- Kaku, K., A. Ikeguchi, A. Ogino, T. Osada, M. Hojito and K. Shimada. 2004. Achieving a nitrogen balance for Japanese domestic livestock waste: Testing the scenario of planting feed grain in land left fallow. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17:1026-1032.
- ISO. 1997. Environmental management-Life cycle assessment: Principle and framework. ISO 14040. Int. Standards Org., Brussels, Belgium.
- Misselbrook, T. H., T. J. Van Der Weerden, B. F. Pain, S. C. Jarvis, B. J. Chambers, K. A. Smith, V. R. Phillips and T. G. M. Demmers. 2000. Ammonia emission factors for UK agriculture. Atmos. Environ. 34:871-880.
- ISO. 2000a. Environmental management-Life cycle assessment: Life cycle impact assessment. ISO 14042. Int. Standards Org. Brussels, Belgium.
- Ogino, A., K. Kaku, T. Osada and K. Shimada. 2004. Environmental impacts of the Japanese beef-fattening system with different feeding lengths as evaluated by a life-cycle assessment method. J. Anim. Sci. 82:2115-2122.
- 원문이 없습니다.
유료 다운로드의 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 신규 회원가입, 로그인, 유료 구매 등이 필요할 수 있습니다. 해당 사이트에서 발생하는 귀하의 모든 정보활동은 NDSL의 서비스 정책과 무관합니다.
원문복사신청을 하시면, 일부 해외 인쇄학술지의 경우 외국학술지지원센터(FRIC)에서
무료 원문복사 서비스를 제공합니다.
NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 위의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니 담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.
- 이 논문과 함께 출판된 논문 + 더보기