Occurrence and Quantification of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (VAM) Fungi in Industrial Polluted Soils
A survey for vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) status was undertaken in three different industrially polluted sites at Uyyakondan channel of Senthanneerpuram area in Trichy, India. The soils and the effluents were acidic, and contained higher Zn (621 to 711 ppm) than the other heavy metals, such as Cu, Pb, and Ni. Eighteen plant species were collected from the rhizosphere soils, and 13 species were positive for VAM colonization. Fifteen VAM fungal species were isolated from the plant species. The number of VAM fungal spores from the soils ranged from 45 to 640 per 100 g of soil. There was a significant correlation observed between the number of spores and percentage root colonization, as exemplified by Acalypha indica (45 and 20%, respectively) and Paspalum vaginatum (640 and 98%, respectively). Hostspecific and site-specific associations were observed in site 2; particular VAM species, Gigaspora gigantea and Glomus fasciculatum, were specific to particular host plants, Phyllanthus maderaspatensis and A. indica, respectively, even though Eclipta prostrata and Physalis minima were maximally associated with 8 VAM species. G. fasciculatum was found in 11 plant species and predominant VAM species. These results led us to conclude that VAM fungi are associated with a majority of the plants in the industrial polluted sites and support the plants to survive in the acidic soils, polluted with heavy metals of the industrial effluents.
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