본문 바로가기
HOME> 논문 > 논문 검색상세

논문 상세정보

Journal of plant biotechnology v.7 no.1, 2005년, pp.1 - 15   피인용횟수: 1

Salt Tolerance in Plants - Transgenic Approaches

Sangam S.    (Department of Genetics, Osmania University   ); Jayasree D.    (Department of Genetics, Osmania University   ); Reddy K.Janardhan    (Department of Botany, Osmania University   ); Chari P.V.B.    (Department of Genetics, Osmania University   ); Sreenivasulu N.    (Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK)   ); Kishor P.B.Kavi    (Department of Genetics, Osmania University  );
  • 초록

    Salinity is one of the major limiting factors for agricultural productivity. In plants, accumulation of osmolytes plays a pivotal role in abiotic stress tolerance. Likewise, exclusion or compartmentation of $Na^+$ ions into vacuoles provides an efficient mechanism to avert deleterious effects of $Na^+$ in the cytosol. Both vacuolar and plasma membrane sodium transporters and $H^+-ATPases$ can provide the necessary ion homeostasis. A variety of crop plants were engineered with respect to the synthesis of osmoprotectants and ion-compartmentation, but there are other cellular pathways involved in the salinity responses that are still not completely explored. Genomics approaches are increasingly used to identify genes and pathway changes involved in salt-tolerance. The new knowledge may be used via guided genetic engineering of multiple genes to create crop plants with significantly increased productivity in saline soils. This review surveys how plants deal with high salt conditions and how salt tolerance can be improved by transgenic approaches.


  • 주제어

    Salt stress tolerance .   osmoregulation .   genomic approaches .   transgenics.  

  • 참고문헌 (104)

    1. Barkla BJ, Pantoja O (1996) Physiology of ion transport across the tonoplast of higher plants. Ann Rev Plant Physiol Mol Biol 47:159-184 
    2. Barthakur S, Babu V, Bansal KC (2001) Over-expression of osmotin induces proline accumulation and confers tolerance to osmotic stress in transgenic tobacco. J Plant Biochem Biotech 10: 31-37 
    3. Bohnert HJ, Ayoubi P, Borchert C, Bressan RA, Burnap RL, Cushman JC, Cushman MA, Deyholos M, Fischer R, Galbraith DW, Hasegawa PM, Jenks M, Kawasaki S, Koiwa H, Kore-eda S, Lee BH, Michalowski CB, Misawa E, Nomura M, Ozturk N, Postier B, Prade R, Song CP, Tanaka Y, Wang H, Zhu JK (2001) A genomics approach towards salt stress tolerance. Plant Physiol Biochem 39: 295-311 
    4. Cheng ZQ, Targolli J, Huang XQ, Wu R (2002) Wheat LEA genes, PMA80 and PMA1959, enhance dehydration tolerance of transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.). Molecular Breed 10: 71-82 
    5. Fukushima E, Arata Y, Endo T, Sonnewald U, Sato F (2001) Improved salt tolerance of transgenic tobacco expressing apoplastic yeast-derived invertase. Plant Cell Physiol 42: 245-249 
    6. Garg AK, Kim JK, Owens TG, Ranwala AP, Choi YD, Kochian LV, Wu RJ (2002) Trehalose accumulation in rice plants confers high tolerance levels to different abiotic stresses. Proc Nat Acad Sd USA 99: 15898-15903 
    7. Goldschmidt EE, Tsang MLS, Schiff JA (1975) Studies of sulfate utilization by algae. Plant Sci Lett 4: 293-299 
    8. Kavi Kishor PB, Sangam S, Amrutha RN, Sri Laxmi P, Naidu KR, Rao KRSS, Rao S, Reddy KJ, Theriappan P, Sreenivasulu N (2005) Regulation of proline biosynthesis, degradation, uptake and transport in higher plants: Its implications in plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. Curr Sci 88: 424-438 
    9. Kavi Kishor PB, Hong Z, Miao G, Hu C, Verma DPS (1995) Over expression of ${\Delta}^{1}$-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase increases proline overproduction and confers osmotolerance in transgenic plants. Plant Physiol 108: 1387-1394 
    10. Mohanty A, Kathuria H, Ferjani A, Sakamoto A, Mohanty P, Murata N, Tyagi AK (2002) Transgenics of an elite Indica rice variety Pusa Basmati-1 harbouring the codA gene are highly tolerant to salt stress. Theor Appl Genet 106: 51-57 
    11. Peng Z, Verma OPS (1995) A rice HAL2-like gene encodes a $Ca^{2+}$ sensitive 3' (2') 5' - diphospho nucleoside 3' (2' )phospho hydrolase and complements yeast met22 and Escherichia coli cys Q mutations. J Biol Chem 270: 29105-29110 
    12. Roxas VP, Smith RK, Allen ER, Allen RO (1997) Overex-pression of glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase enhance the growth of transgenic tobacco seedlings during stress. Nature Biotech 15: 988-991 
    13. Sakamoto A, Murata N (2002) The role of glycine betaine in the protection of plants from stress: clues from transgenic plants. Plant Cell Environ 25: 163-171 
    14. Sreenivasulu N, Ramanjulu S, Ramachandra-Kini K, Prakash HS, Shetty HS. Savithri HS, Sudhakar C (1999) Total peroxidase activity and peroxidase isoforms as modified by salt stress in two cultivars of fox-tail millet with differential salt tolerance. Plant Sci 141: 1-9 
    15. Sugino M, Hibino T, Tanaka Y, Nii N, Takabe T, Takabe T. (1999) Overexpression of DnaK from a halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica acquires resistance to salt stress in transgenic tobacco plants. Plant Sci 146: 81-88 
    16. Tarczynski MC, Jensen RG, Bohnert HJ (1993) Stress protection of the osmolyte mannitol. Science 259: 508-510 
    17. Zhu JK, Hasegawa PM, Bressan RA (1997) Molecular aspects of osmotic stress in plants. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci 16: 253-277 
    18. Zhu BC, Su J, Chan MC, Verma DPS, Fan YL, Wu R (1998) Overexpression of a ${\Delta}^1$-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase gene and analysis of tolerance to water- and salt-stress in transgenic rice. Plant Sci 139: 41-48 
    19. Apse MP, Blumwald E (2002) Engineering salt tolerance in plants. Curr Opinion Biotech 13: 146-150 
    20. Badawi GH, Yamauchi Y, Shimada E, Sasaki R, Kawano N, Tanaka K, Tanaka K (2004) Enhanced tolerance to salt stress and water deficit by overexpressing superoxide dismutase in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) chloroplasts. Plant Sci 166: 919-928 
    21. Balnokin-Yu V, Popova L (1994) The ATP-driven $Na^+$ pump in the plasma membrane of the marine unicellular algae, Platymonas viridis. FEBS Lett 343: 61-64 
    22. Gaxiola RA, Rao R, Sherman A, Grisafi P, Alper SL, Fink GR (1999) The Arabidopsis thaliana proton transporters, AtNhx1 and Avp1, can function in cation detoxification in yeast. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 98: 11444-11449 
    23. Hernandez AJ, Jimenez A, Mullineaux P, Sevilla F (2000) Tolerance of pea (Pisum sativum) to long-term salt stress is associated with induction of antioxidant defences. Plant Cell Envron 23: 853-862 
    24. Noctor G, Foyer CH (1998) Ascorbate and glutathione: keeping active oxygen under control. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 39: 1269-1280 
    25. Park SY, Seo SB, Lee SJ, Na JG, Kim Y J (2001) Mutation in PMR1, a $Ca^{2+}$ -ATPase in Golgi, confers salt tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by inducing expression of PMR2, an $Na^+$-ATPase in plasma membrane. J Biol Chem 276: 28694-28699 
    26. Zhang HX, Blumwald E (2001) Transgenic salt-tolerant tomato plants accumulate salt in foliage but not in fruit. Nature Biotech 19: 765-768 
    27. Zhu JK, Shi J, Bressan RA, Hasegawa PM (1993) Expression of an Atriplex nummularia gene encoding a protein homologous to the bacterial molecular chaperone DNA J. Plant Cell 5: 341-349 
    28. Czenpinski K, Zimmermann S, Ehrhardt T, Muller Rober B (1997) New structure and function in plant $K^+$ channels: KCI, an outward rectifier with a steep $Ca^{2+}$ dependency. EMBO J 16: 2565-2575 
    29. Greenway H, Munns R (1980) Mechanisms of salt tolerance in non-halophytes. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 31: 149-190 
    30. Mani S, Van de Cotte B, Van Montagu M, Verbruggen N (2002) Altered levels of proline dehydrogenase cause hypersensitivity to proline and its analogs in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 128: 73-83 
    31. Shi HZ, Xiong LM, Stevenson B, Lu TG, Zhu JK (2002) The Arabidopsis salt overly sensitive 4 mutants uncover a critical role for vitamin B6 in plant salt tolerance. Plant Cell 14: 575-588 
    32. Cooper S, Lerner HR, Reinhold L (1991) Evidence for a highly specific $K^+$/$H^+$ anti porter in membrane vesicles from the oil-seed rape hypocotyls. Plant Physiol 95: 1212-1220 
    33. Sheveleva E, Chmara W, Bohnert HJ, Jensen RG (1997) Increased salt and drought tolerance by O-ononitol production in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum L. Plant Physiol 115: 1211-1219 
    34. Ko CH, Gaber RF (1991) TRK1 and TRK2 encode structurally related $K^+$ transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol 11: 4266-4273 
    35. Ozturk ZN, Talame V, Oeyholos M, Michalowski CB, Galbraith OW, Gozukirmizi N, Tuberosa R, Bohnert HJ (2002) Monitoring large-scale changes in transcript abundance in drought- and salt-stressed barley. Plant Mol Biol 48: 551-573 
    36. Xu DP, Duan XL, Wang BY, Hong BM, Ho THO, Wu R (1996) Expression of a late embryogenesis abundant protein gene, HVA1, from barley confers tolerance to water deficit and salt stress in transgenic rice. Plant Physiol 110: 249-257 
    37. Zhu JK, Liu J, Xiong L (1998) Genetic analysis of salt tolerance in Arabidopsis: evidence for a critical role of potassium nutrition. Plant Cell 10: 1181-1192 
    38. Hassidim M, Braun Y, Lernaer HR, Reinhold L (1990) $Na^+$/$H^+$ and $K^+$/$H^+$ antiport in root membrane vesicles isolated from the halophyte Atriplex and the glycophyte cotton. Plant Physiol 94: 1795-1801 
    39. Huang J, Hirji R, Adam L, Rozwadowski KL, Hammerlindl JK, Keller WA, Selvaraj G (2000) Genetic engineering of glycinebetaine production toward enhancing stress tolerance in plants: Metabolic limitations. Plant Physiol 122: 747-756 
    40. Liu J, Zhu JK (1998) A calcium sensor homolog required for plant salt tolerance. Science 280: 1943-1945 
    41. Rohila JS, Jain RK, Wu R (2002) Genetic improvement of Basmati rice for salt and drought tolerance by regulated expression of a barley HVA1 cDNA. Plant Sci 163: 525-532 
    42. Bowler C, Siooten L, Vanden branden S, De Rycke R, Botterman J, Sybesma C, Van Montagu M, Inze D (1991) Manganese superoxide dismutase can reduce cellular damage mediated by oxygen radicals in transgenic plants. EMBO J 10: 1723-1732 
    43. Rawson HM, Richards RA, Munns R (1988) An examination of selection criteria for salt tolerance in wheat, barley and triticale genotypes. Aust J Agri Res 39: 759-772 
    44. Saijo Y, Hata S, Kyozuka J, Shimamoto K, Izui K (2000) Over-expression of a single $Ca^{2+}$ -dependent protein kinase confers both cold and salt/drought tolerance on rice plants. Plant J 23: 319-327 
    45. Gueta-Dahan Y, Yaniv Z, Zillinskas BA, Ben-Hayyim G (1997) Salt and oxidative stress: similar and specific responses and their relation to salt tolerance in citrus. Planta 203: 460-469 
    46. Jia ZP, McCullough N, Martel R, Hemmingsen S, Young PG (1992) Gene amplification at a locus encoding a putative $Na^+$/$H^+$ anti porter confers sodium and lithium tolerance in fission yeast. EMBO J 11: 1631-1640 
    47. Prabhavathi V, Yadav JS, Kumar PA, Rajam MV (2002) Abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) by introduction of bacterial mannitol phosphodehydrogenase gene. Molecular Breed 9: 137-147 
    48. Suprasanna P (2003) Building stress tolerance through overproducing trehalose in transgenic plants. Trends Plant Sci 8: 355-357 
    49. Apse MP, Aharon GS, Snedden WA, Blumwald E (1999) Salt tolerance conferred by overexpression of a vacuolar $Na^+$/$H^+$ anti port in Arabidopsis. Science 285: 1256-1258 
    50. Oberschall A, Deak M, Torok K, Sass L, Vass I, Kovacs I, Feher A, Dudits D, Horvath GV (2000) A novel aldosel aldehyde reductase protects transgenic plants against lipid peroxidation under chemical and drought stresses. Plant J 24: 437-446 
    51. Delauney AJ, Verma DPS (1993) Proline biosynthesis and osmoregulation in plants. Plant J 4: 215-223 
    52. Rehman S, Harris PJC, Bourne WF (1998) The effect of sodium chloride on the $Ca^{2+}$ , $K^+$, and $Na^+$ concentrations of the seed coat and embryo of Acacia totilis and A.coriacea. Ann Appl Biol 133: 269-279 
    53. Rus A, Yokai S, Sharkhu A, Reddy M, Lee B, Matasumoto TK, Kolwa H, Zhu JK, Bressan RA, Hasegawa PM (2001). AtHKT1 is a salt tolerance determinant that controls $Na^+$ entry into plant roots. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 98: 14150-14155 
    54. Smart CC, Flores HE (1997) Overexpression of D-myoinositol-3-phsphate synthase leads to elevated levels of inositol in Arabidopsis. Plant Mol Biol 33: 814-820 
    55. Tepperman JM, Dunsmuir P (1990) Transformed plants with elevated levels of chloroplastic SOD are not more resistant to superoxide toxicity. Plant Mol Biol 14: 501-511 
    56. Bryan, JK (1990) A Comprehensive Treatise. Miflin B J, Lea P J (eds), Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, CA, in The Biochemistry of Plants 16 : 197-282 
    57. De Ronde JA, Spreeth MH, Cress WA (2000) Effect of antisense 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase transgenic soybean plants subjected to osmotic and drought stress. Plant Growth Reg 32: 13-26 
    58. Gaxiola R, deLarrinoa FI, Villalba JM, Serrano R (1992) A novel and conserved salt induced protein is an important determinant of salt tolerance in yeast. EMBO J 11: 3157-3164 
    59. Sivamani E, Bahieldin A, Wraith JM, AI-Niemi T, Dyer WE, Ho THO, Qu RO (2000) Improved biomass productivity and water use efficiency under water deficit conditions in transgenic wheat constitutively expressing the barley HVA1 gene. Plant Sci 155: 1-9 
    60. Sreenivasulu N, Grimm B, Wobus U, Weschke W (2000) Differential response of antioxidant compounds to salinity stress in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive seedlings of foxtail millet (Setaria italica). Physiol Plant 109: 435-442 
    61. Delauney AJ, Hu C-M, Kavi Kishor PB, Verma DPS (1993) Cloning of ornithine ${\delta}$-aminotransferase cDNA from Vigna aconitifolia by trans-complementation in Escherichia coli and regulation of proline biosynthesis. J Biol Chem 268: 18673-18678 
    62. Laurie S, Feeney KA, Maathuis FJM, Heard PJ, Brown SJ, Leigh RA (2002) A role for HKT1 in sodium uptake by wheat roots. Plant J 32: 139-149 
    63. Pardo JM, Reddy MP, Yang SL, Maggio A, Huh GH, Matsumoto T, Coca MA, Paino-D' Urzo M, Koiwa H, Yun OJ, Watad AA, Bressan RA, Hasegawa PM (1998) Stress signaling through $Ca^{2+}$ /calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin mediates salt adaptation in plants. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 95: 9681-9686 
    64. Tsugane K, Kobayashi K, Niwa Y, Ohba Y, Wada K, Kobayashi H (1999) A recessive Arabidopsis mutant that grows photoautotrophically under salt stress enhanced active oxygen detoxification. Plant Cell 11: 1195-1206 
    65. Delauney AJ, Verma DPS (1990) A soybean gene encoding $\Delta^{1}$ -pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase was isolated by functional complementation in Escherichia coli and is found to be osmoregulated. Mol Gen Genet 221: 299-305 
    66. Sawahel WA, Hassan AH (2002) Generation of transgenic wheat plants producing high levels of the osmoprotectant proline. Biotech Lett 24: 721-725 
    67. Sreenivasulu N, Miranda M, Prakash HS, Wobus U, Weschke W (2004) Transcriptome changes in foxtail millet genotypes at high salinity: Identification and characterization of a PHGPX gene specifically up-regulated by NaCI in a salt-tolerant line. J Plant Physiol 161: 467-477 
    68. Yang SX, Zhao YX, Zhang Q, He YK, Zhang H, Luo D (2001) HAL1 mediated salt adaptation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Cell Research 11: 142-148 
    69. Crowe JH, Carpenter JF, Crowe LM (1998) The role of vitrification in anhydrobiosis. Ann Rev Physiol 60:73-103 
    70. Roxas VP, Lodhi SA, Garrett OK, Mahan JR, Allen RO (2000) Stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco seedlings that overexpress glutathione S-transferase/glutathione peroxidase. Plant Cell Physiol 41: 1229-1234 
    71. Sreenivasulu N, Kavi Kishor PB, Varshney RK, Altschmied L (2002a) Mining functional information from cereal genomes - the utility of expressed sequence tags. Current Sci 83: 965-973 
    72. Yeo ET, Kwon HB, Han SE, Lee JT, Ryu JC, Byu MO (2000) Genetic engineering of drought resistant potato plants by introduction of the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS1) gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cells 10: 263-268 
    73. Zhang HX, Hodson IN, Williams JP, Blumwald E (2001) Engineering salt tolerant Brassica plants: characterization of yield and seed oil quality in transgenic plants with increased vacuolar sodium accumulation. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 98: 12832-12836 
    74. Babu RC, Zhang J, Blum A, David Ho T-H, Wu R, Nguyen HT (2004) HVA1, a LEA gene from barley confers dehydration tolerance in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) via cell membrane protection. Plant Sci 166: 855-862 
    75. Barkla BJ, Vera-Estrella R, Camacho-Emiterio J, Pantoja O (2002) $Na^+$/$H^+$ exchange in the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum is associated with cellular sites of $Na^+$ storage. Functional Plant Biol 9: 1017-1024 
    76. Murguia JR, Belles JM, Serrano R (1995) A salt sensitive 3' (2'), 5' -bisphosphate nucleotidase involved in sulphate activation. Science 267:232-234 
    77. Pilon-Smits EA, Terry N, Sears T, Kim H, Zayed A, Hawang S, Van Dun K, Voogd E, Berwoerd TC, Krutwagen RWHH, Godijn OJM (1998) Trehalose - producing transgenic tobacco plants show improved performance under drought conditions. J Plant Physiol 152: 525-532 
    78. Wang J, Zhang H, Allen RD (1999) Overexpression of an Arabidopsis peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase gene in tobacco increases protection against oxidative stress. Plant Cell Physiol 40: 725-732 
    79. Holmstrom K, Somersalo S, Mandai A, Paiva TE and Welin B (2000) Improved tolerance to salinity and low temparature in transgenic tobacco producing glycine betaine. J Exp Bot 51: 177-185 
    80. McKersie BD, Bowley SR, Harjanto E, Leprince O (1996) Water deficit tolerance and field performance of transgenic alfalfa overexpressing superoxide dismutase. Plant Physiol 111: 1177-1181 
    81. Russell BL, Rathinasabapathi B, Hanson AD (1998) Osmotic stress induces expression of choline monooxygenase in sugar beet and amaranth. Plant Physiol 116: 859-865 
    82. Sreenivasulu N, Altschmied L, Panitz R, Hahnel U, Michalek W, Weschke W, Wobus U (2002b) Identification of genes specifically expressed in maternal and filial tissues of barley caryopses: A cDNA array analysis. Mol Genet Genomics 266: 758-767 
    83. Dure L (1993) Structural motifs in LEA proteins. In: CloseTJ, Bray EA, (eds), Plant responses to cellular dehydration during environmental stress, American Society of Plant Physiologists, pp 91-104 
    84. Glenn E, Brown JJ, Blumwald E (1999) Salt tolerant mechanism and crop potential of halophytes. Critical Rev Plant Sci 18: 227-255 
    85. Hong SW, Vierling E (2000) Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana defective in the acquisition of tolerance to high temperature stress. Proc Nat Acad Sci 97: 4392-4397 
    86. Hayashi H, Alia, Mustardy L, Deshnium P, Ida M, Murata N (1997) Transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana with the codA gene for choline oxidase: accumulation of glycine betaine and enhanced tolerance to salt and cold stress. Plant J 12: 133-142 
    87. Lehr A, Kirsch M, Viereck R, Schiemann, Rausch T (1999) cDNA and genomic cloning of sugar beet V-type $H^+$ATPase subunit A and C isoforms: evidence for coordinated expression during plant development and coordinated induction in response to high salinity. Plant Mol Biol 39: 463-475 
    88. Gaxiola RA, Li J, Undurraga S, Dang LM, Allen GJ, Alper SI, Fink GR (2001) Drought- and salt-tolerant plants result from overexpression of the AVP1 $H^+$ - pump. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 98: 11444-11449 
    89. Sun WN, Bernard C, van de Cotte B, Van Montagu M, Verbruggen N (2001) At-HSP17.6A, encoding a small heat-shock protein in Arabidopsis, can enhance osmotolerance upon overexpression. Plant J 27: 407-415 
    90. Glaser H-U, Thomas D, Gaxiola R, Montrichard F, SurdinKerjan Y, Serrano R (1993) Salt tolerance and methionine biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae involve a putative phosphatase gene. EMBO J 12: 3105-3110 
    91. Kawasaki S, Borchert C, Deyholos M, Wang H, Brazille S, Kawai K, Galbraith D, Bohnert HJ (2001) Gene expression profiles during the initial phase of salt stress in rice. Plant Cell 13: 889-905 
    92. Churin Y, Schilling S, Borner T (1999) A gene family encoding glutathione peroxidase homologues in Hordeum vulgare (barley). FEBS Lett 459: 33-38 
    93. Kleines M, Elster RC, Rodrigo MJ, Blervacq AS, Salmini F, Bartels D (1999) Isolation and expression analysis of twostress responsive sucrose-synthase genes from the resurrection plant Craterostigma platagineum (Hochst.). Planta 209: 13-24 
    94. Liu JP, Ishitani M, Halfter U, Kim CS, Zhu JK (2000) The Arabidopsis thaliana $SOS_2$ gene encodes a protein kinase that is required for salt tolerance. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 97: 3730-3734 
    95. Zhu JK (2002) Salt and drought stress signal transduction in plants. Ann Rev Plant Biol 53: 247-273 
    96. Matsumura T, Tabayashi N, Kamagata Y, Souma C, Saruyama H (2002) Wheat catalase expressed in transgenic rice can improve tolerance against low temperature stress. Physiol Plant 116: 317-327 
    97. Piao HL, Lim JH, Kim SJ, Cheong GW, Hwang I (2001) Constitutive over-expression of AtGSK1 induces NaCI stress responses in the absence of NaCI stress and results in enhanced NaCI tolerance in Arabidopsis. Plant J 27: 305-314 
    98. Shi HZ, Ischitani M, Kim C, Zhu JK (2000) The Arabidopsis thaliana salt tolerance gene SOS1 encodes a putative $Na^+$/$H^+$antiporter. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 97: 6896-6901 
    99. Singh BG, Verma OPS (2001) Glutathione-an antioxidant to withstand oxidative stress in transgenic lines of tobacco. Ind J Plant Physiol 6: 229-232 
    100. Binzel ML (1995) NaCI-induced accumulation of tonoplast and plasma membrane $H^+$-ATPase in tomato. Physiol Plant 94: 722-728 
    101. Bray EA (1997) Plant responses to water deficit. Trends Plant Sci 2: 48-54 
    102. Datta K, Velazhahan R, Oliva N, ana I, Mew T, Khush GS, Muthukrishnan S, Datta SK (1999) Over-expression of the cloned rice thaumatin-like protein (PR-5) gene in transgenic rice plants enhances environmental friendly resistance to Rhizoctonia solani causing sheath blight disease. Theor Appl Genet 98: 1138-1145 
    103. Leprince O, Harren FJM, Buitink J, Alberda M, Hoekstra FA (2000) Metabolic dysfunction and unabated respiration precede the loss of membrane integrity during dehydration of germinating radicles. Plant Physiol 122: 597-608 
    104. Quintero FJ, Garciadeblas B and Rodriguez-Navarro A (1996) The SAL1 gene of Arabidopsis, encoding an enzyme with 3' (2'), 5' -bisphosphate nucleotide and inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphate activities increase salt tolerance in yeast. Plant Cell 8: 529-537 
  • 이 논문을 인용한 문헌 (1)

    1. 2008. "" BMB reports, 41(1): 86~91     

 활용도 분석

  • 상세보기

    amChart 영역
  • 원문보기

    amChart 영역

원문보기

무료다운로드
  • NDSL :
유료다운로드

유료 다운로드의 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 신규 회원가입, 로그인, 유료 구매 등이 필요할 수 있습니다. 해당 사이트에서 발생하는 귀하의 모든 정보활동은 NDSL의 서비스 정책과 무관합니다.

원문복사신청을 하시면, 일부 해외 인쇄학술지의 경우 외국학술지지원센터(FRIC)에서
무료 원문복사 서비스를 제공합니다.

NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 위의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니 담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

이 논문과 함께 출판된 논문 + 더보기