Instability of Anthocyanin Accumulation in Vitis vinifera L. var. Gamay Freaux Suspension Cultures
The inherent instability of metabolite production in plant cell culture-based bioprocessing is a major problem hindering its commercialization. To understand the extent and causes of this instability, this study was aimed at understanding the variability of anthocyanin accumulation during long-term subcultures, as well as within subculture batches, in Vitis vinifera cell cultures. Therefore, four cell line suspensions of Vitis vinifera L. var. Gamay Freaux, A, B, C and D, originated from the same callus by cell-aggregate cloning, were established with starting anthocyanin contents of $2.73\;\pm\;0.15,\;1.45\;\pm\;0.04,\;0.7\;\pm\;0.024\;and\;0.27\;\pm\;0.04$ CV (Color Value)/g-FCW (fresh cell weight), respectively. During weekly subculturing of 33 batches over 8 months, the anthocyanin biosynthetic capacity was gradually lost at various rates, for all four cell lines, regardless of the significant difference in the starting anthocyanin content. Contrary to this general trend, a significant fluctuation in the anthocyanin content was observed, but with an irregular cyclic pattern. The variabilities in the anthocyanin content between the subcultures for the 33 batches, as represented by the variation coefficient (VC), were 58, 57, 54, and $84\%$ for V. vinifera cell lines A, B, C and D, respectively. Within one subculture, the VCs from 12 replicate flasks for each of 12 independent subcultures were averaged, and found to be $9.7\%$ , ranging from 4 to $17\%$ . High- and low-producing cell lines, VV05 and VV06, with 1.8-fold differences in their basal anthocyanin contents, exhibited different inducibilities to L-phenylalanine feeding, methyl jasmonate and light irradiation. The low-producing cell line showed greater potential in enhanced the anthocyanin production.
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