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Wind & structures v.8 no.3, 2005년, pp.213 - 233  

Application of numerical models to evaluate wind uplift ratings of roofs: Part II

Baskaran, A.    (National Research Council Canada   ); Molleti, S.    (Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa  );
  • 초록

    Wind uplift rating of roofing systems is based on standardized test methods. Roof specimens are placed in an apparatus with a specified table size (length and width) then subjected to the required wind load cycle. Currently, there is no consensus on the table size to be used by these testing protocols in spite of the fact that the table size plays a significant role in wind uplift performance. Part I of this paper presented a study with the objective to investigate the impact of table size on the performance of roofing systems. To achieve this purpose, extensive numerical experiments using the finite element method have been conducted and benchmarked with results obtained from the experimental work. The present contribution is a continuation of the previous research and can be divided into two parts: (1) Undertake additional numerical simulations for wider membranes that were not addressed in the previous works. Due to the advancement in membrane technology, wider membranes are now available in the market and are used in commercial roofing practice as it reduces installation cost and (2) Formulate a logical step to combine and generalize over 400 numerical tests and experiments on various roofing configurations and develop correction factors such that it can be of practical use to determine the wind uplift resistance of roofs.


  • 주제어

    wind uplift .   roofing system .   test method .   numerical model .   thermoplastic .   thermoset .   modified bituminous .   fastener force and correction factor.  

  • 참고문헌 (14)

    1. Zahrai, S.M. and Baskaran, A. (2001), "Table size effect on wind resistance of modified bituminous roofing systems", Int. Conf. on Building Envelope Systems and Technologies (ICBEST) (Ottawa, Ontario, 2001-06-26), 319-324. 
    2. Baskaran, A. and Borujerdi, J. (2001), "Application of numerical models to determine wind uplifts ratings of roofs", Wind and Struct., An Int. J., 4(3), 213-226. 
    3. Baskaran, A., Lei, W. and Richardson, C. (1999), "Dynamic evaluation of thermoplastic roofing systems for wind performance", J. Architectural Eng., ASCE, 5(5), 16-24. 
    4. Baskaran, A. and Lei, W. (1997), "A new facility for dynamic wind performance evaluation of roofing systems", Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Roofing Technology, NRCA/NIST, Washington, D.C., U.S.A., 168-179. 
    5. Borujerdi, J. (2004), "Numerical evaluation of low slope roof for wind uplift", Master of Applied Sciences, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, ON, Canada. 
    6. Cook, N.J., Keevil, A.P. and Stobart, R.K. (1988), "BRERWULF-The big bad wolf," J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 29, 99-107. 
    7. Factory Mutual Research (1986), Approval Standard (5 by 9): Class I Roof Covers (4470), Norwood, Massachusetts, USA. 
    8. Factory Mutual Research (1992), Approval Standard (12 by 24): Class I Roof Covers (4470), Norwood, Massachusetts, USA. 
    9. Gerhardt, H.J. and Kramer, C. (1986), "Wind induced loading cycle and fatigue testing of lightweight roofing fixations", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 23, 237-247. 
    10. Paulsen, E.M. (1989), "NBI roof wind uplift strength test facility and load programs", Proceedings of the Roof Wind Uplift Testing Workshop, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 46-51. 
    11. Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (1991), Standard for Wind Uplift Pressure of Roof Assemblies (UL 580). Third edition, Nov. 1991. 
    12. ABAQUS (2002), User's manual, Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc., Pawtucket, RI. USA. 
    13. ASTM standard ASTM D 6878-03, Standard Specification for Thermoplastic Polyolefin Based Sheet Roofing, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA. 
    14. ASTM standard, ASTM D 751-00, Tensile Test is done using Procedure B-Cut Strip Test Method, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA. 

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