Clinical Comparison of Low-dose and High-dose Steroid in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass
Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for cardiac surgery triggers the production and release of numerous chemotactic substances and cytokines, ensuing systemic inflammatory response that leads to postoperative major organ dysfunction. Traditionally, corticosteroids (steroid) have been administered to patients undergoing cardiac surgery to ward off these detrimental physiologic alterations. However, the majority of the studies have been performed on adult patients with high-dose steroid. We carried out a randomized, prospective, double-blind study to compare the efficacy of low-dose steroid with that of high-dose steroid and to determine the adequate dose of pretreated-steroid for prophylactic effects in pediatric cardiac surgery. Thirty pediatric patients scheduled for elective cardiac surgery were randomly assigned to two groups; fifteen patients received low-dose methylprednisolone (10mg/kg intravenously, n=15, low-dose group) and the others received high-dose methylprednisolone (30mg/kg intravenously, n=15, high-dose group) 1 hour prior to CPB. Arterial blood samples were taken before CPB (Pre-CPB), 10 minutes after start of CPB (CPB-10), and immediately after CPB-end (CPB-OFF) for measuring total leukocyte counts (T-WBC) and diff-counts, platelet counts, interleukin-6 (IL-6), myeloperoxidase (MPO), total antioxidant (TAO), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), troponin I (TNI), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. Other parameters such as volumes of urine output, pulmonary index $(PI,\;PaO_2/FiO_2)$ , mechanical ventilating period, intensive care unit (ICU)-staying period, postoperative complications (fever, wound problem), postoperative 24 hrs and total volumes in blood loss, and hospitalized days were also assessed. All parameters were compared between two groups. There were no significant differences in T-WBC counts, monocyte fraction, platelet counts, TA levels, NSE levels, creatinine levels, BUN levels, the volumes of total urine output, PI, the incidences of fever and wound problem, postoperative 24hrs- and total-blood loss volumes and ICU-staying period between two groups (P>0.05). At CPB-OFF, neutrophil fraction, MPO level, TNI level, and AST level were higher in the high-dose group than in the low-dose group (P
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