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마늘 황화합물의 병원성미생물 번식억제작용
Growth Inhibitory Activity of Sulfur Compounds of Garlic against Pathogenic Microorganisms

경규항   (세종대학교 식품공학과UU0000792  );
  • 초록

    마늘과 마늘의 황화합물은 여러 가지 미생물(그람양성 및 음성 세균, 곰팡이, 효모, 원생동물)의 번식을 저해하므로 마늘을 감염증치료에 쓰고자 하는 노력이 많았고 따라서 병원성 미생물에 대한 번식저해연구가 많이 수행되었다. 마늘에 의한 병원성 미생물의 번식저해작용을 연구한 대상 미생물 중에서 세균으로는 Staphylococcus aureus가 가장 많이 연구되었고 기타 많은 종류의 그람음성 및 앙성 병원성 세균이 연구대상이었다. 효모와 곰팡이를 통털어 Candide albicans의 번식저해 연구가 전체 진균류 연구의 대부분을 차지하였다. 특이하게 Giardia intestinalis에 대한 연구보고도 있었으며 마늘은 시험한 대부분의 미생물에 대해 강력한 천연 항균제로서 인정되었다. 마늘은 원래 가열하지 않은 생마늘이어야 알린이 alliinase 효소에 의해 분해되어 강력한 항균물질인 알리신을 생성하게 되므로 주로 생마늘의 항균작용연구가 주를 이루었다 알리신은 불안정하여 저장중에 분해되어 여러 가지 물질로 변화하게 되는 데 알리신이 분해되어 생성되는 ajoene이나 기타 여러 가지 sulfide류 역시 세균이나 효모에 매우 강력한 항균작용을 나타낸다. 마늘의 알리신이 나타내는 항균작용은 thiosulfinate기가 미생물의 대사에 중요한 역할을 하는 효소중에서 -SH 기를 가지는 효소단백질과 결합하여 불활성화시키기 때문에 결과적으로 미생물이 사멸하는 것으로 설명되고 있다. 하지만 이와 같은 일반적인 독성 메카니즘 이외에 특이한 효소에 특이하게 저해작용을 나타낸다는 가설이 있고 그 중에서도 지방산 합성에 관여하는 효소를 저해하기 때문이라는 의견이 많다. 최근에 식품의 조리 온도에서 가열한 마늘이 항균작용이 있는 것이 발견되었는데 그 작용은 주로 항진균작용이며 그 항균작용물질은 알린이 열분해 되어 생성되는 allyl alcohol인 것으로 보고되었다.


    Efforts have been made to explore the possibility of using garlic as an antimicrobial therapeutic agent since garlic extract and its individual sulfur compounds show antimicrobial activities against all kinds of microorganisms including bacteria, molds, yeasts and protozoa. Staphylococcus aureus has been the most studied bacteria along with many other Gram positive and negative pathogenic bacteria, including species of the genera Clostridium, Mycobacterium, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Bacillus, Salmonella and Shigella. Candida albicans has been the most studied among the eukaryotic microorganisms. A pathogenic protozoa, Giardia intestinalis, was also tested. All the microorganisms tested was inhibited by garlic extract or its sulfur components. Garlic has been known to be growth inhibitory only when fresh garlic is crushed, since allicin-generating reaction is enzyme-catalyzed. Allicin is known to be growth inhibitory through a non-specific reaction with sulfhydryl groups of enzyme proteins that are crucial to the metabolism of microorganisms. Another plausible hypothesis is that allicin inhibits specific enzymes in certain biological processes, e.g. acetyl CoA synthetase in fatty acid synthesis in microorganisms. Allicin transforms into other compounds like ajoene and various sulfides which are also inhibitory to microorganisms, but not as potent as their mother compound. It is reported recently that garlic heated at cooking temperatures is growth inhibitory especially against yeasts, and that the growth inhibitory compound is allyl alcohol thermally generated from alliin in garlic.


  • 주제어

    garlic .   antimicrobial activity .   allicin .   alliin .   allyl alcohol .   sulfides.  

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