본문 바로가기
HOME> 논문 > 논문 검색상세

논문 상세정보

Application of Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC) to Determine Formaldehyde and VOCs Emissions from Wood-Based Composites

Kim, Sumin   (Composite Materials and Structures Center, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, College of Engineering, Michigan State UniversityUU0015078  ); Kim, Jin-A   (Lab. of Adhesion & Bio-Composites, Program in Environmental Materials Science, Department of Forest Sciences, Seoul National UniversityUU0000691  ); Kim, Hyun-Joong   (Lab. of Adhesion & Bio-Composites, Program in Environmental Materials Science, Department of Forest Sciences, Seoul National UniversityUU0000691  );
  • 초록

    The Korean Ministry of Environment started controlling indoor air quality (IAQ) in 2004 through the introduction of a law regulating the use of pollutant emitting building materials. The use of materials with formaldehyde emission levels above $1.25 mg/m^2{\cdot}h$ (JIS A 1901, small chamber method) has been prohibited. This level is equivalent to the $E_2$ grade ( $ 5.0mg/{\ell}$ ) of the desiccator method (JIS A 1460). However, the $20{\ell}$ small chamber method requires a 7-day test time to obtain the formaldehyde and volatile organic compound (VOC) emission results from solid building interior materials. As a approach to significantly reduce the test time, the field and laboratory emission cell (FLEC) has been proposed in Europe with a total test time less than one hour. This paper assesses the reproducibility of testing formaldehyde and TVOC emissions from wood-based composites such as medium density fiberboard (MDF), laminate flooring, and engineered flooring using three methods: desiccator, perforator and FLEC. According to the desiccator and perforator standards, the formaldehyde emission level of each flooring was ${\le}E_1$ grade. The formaldehyde emission of MDF was $3.48 mg/{\ell}$ by the desiccator method and 8.57 g/100 g by the perforator method. To determine the formaldehyde emission, the peak areas of each wood-based composite were calculated from aldehyde chromatograms obtained using the FLEC method. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde and benzaldehyde were detected as aldehyde compounds. The experimental results indicated that MDF emitted chloroform, benzene, trichloroethylene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xy-lene, styrene, and o-xylene. MDF emitted significantly greater amounts of VOCs than the floorings did.


  • 주제어

    field and laboratory emission cell (FLEC) .   formaldehyde .   VOCs .   wood-Based composites.  

  • 참고문헌 (37)

    1. ASTM-D6007-96. 1996. Standard test method for determining formaldehyde concentrations in air from wood products using a small scale chamber 
    2. Cleno, J. G., P. A. Clausen, C. J. Weschler, and P. Wolkoff. 2001. Determination of ozone removal rates by selected building products using the FLEC emission cell. Environmental Science and Technology 35: 2548-2553 
    3. ECA-IAQ Report No.13. 1993. Determination of VOCs emitted from indoor materials and products Inter laboratory comparison of small chamber measurements, Brussels 
    4. ENV 13419- 1. 1999. Building products -Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds- Part 1: Emission test chamber method, Brussels, European Committee for Standardization 
    5. European Collaborative Action. 1993. European Collaborative Action, Determination of VOCs emitted from indoor materials and products-interlaboratory comparison of small chamber measurements. Report No. 13, Commission of the European Communities, Brussels-Luxembourg 
    6. Hawthorne, A. R. and T. G. Matthews. 1987. Models for estimating organic emissions from building materials: formaldehyde example, Atmospheric Environment 21 (2): 419-424 
    7. Karlsson, S., Z. G. Banhidi, and A.-C. Albertsson. 1989. Gas chromatographic detection of volatile amines found in indoor air due to putrefactive degradation of casein-containing building materials, Materials and Structures 22: 163-169 
    8. Kim, S. and H.-J. Kim. 2005a. Effect of addition of polyvinyl acetate to melamine-formaldehyde resin on the adhesion and formaldehyde emission in engineered flooring. International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives 25: 456-461 
    9. Kim, S., J.-A. Kim, H.-J. Kim, and S. D. Kim. 2006. Determination of formaldehyde and TVOC emission factor from wood-based composites by small chamber method. Polymer Testing 25(5): 605-614 
    10. Kim, S., H.-J. Kim, H.-S. Kim, Y.-K. Lee, and H.-S. Yang. 2006. Thermal analysis study of viscoelastic properties and activation energy of melamine-modified urea-formaldehyde resins. Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology 20(8): 803-816 
    11. Wen sing, M. 1999. Environmental test chambers. In: T. Salthammer, Editor, Organic Indoor Air Pollutants, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim 
    12. Wolkoff, P., P. A. Clausen, P. A. Nielsen, and L. $\varphi$lhave. 1991. The Danish twin apartment study; part I: formaldehyde and long-term VOC measurements. Indoor Air 4: 478-490 
    13. European Collaborative Action. 1991. European Collaborative Action, Guideline for the characterisation of volatile organic compounds emitted from indoor materials and products using small test chambers. Report No.8, Commission of the European Communities, Brussels-Luxembourg 
    14. Wolkoff, P., P. A. Clausen, and P. A. Nielsen. 1995. Application of the field and laboratory emission cell 'FLEC' - Performance study, intercomparison study, and case study of damaged linoleum in an office. Indoor Air 5(3): 196-203 
    15. ECA-IAQ Report No.2. 1989. Guideline for the determination of steady state concentrations in test chambers, Luxembourg 
    16. ISO 16000-10, 2006b ISO 16000-10, 2006b. Indoor-Air Part 10: Determination of the Emission of Volatile Organic Compounds from Building Products and Furnishings-Emission Test Cell Method 
    17. Wilke, O., O. Jann, and D. Bradner. 2004. VOCand SVOC-emissions from adhesives, floor coverings and complete floor structures, Indoor Air 14: 98-107 
    18. Wolkoff, P. 1998. Impact of air velocity, temperature, humidity, and air on long-term VOC emissions from building products, Atmospheric Environment 32: 2659-2668 
    19. Wolkoff P. and P. A. Nielsen. 1999. A new approach for indoor climate labeling of building materials-emission testing, modeling, and comfort evaluation. Atmospheric Environment 30: 2679-2689 
    20. Risholm-Sundman, M. 1999. Determination of formaldehyde emission with field and laboratory emission cell (FLEC)-recovery and correlation to the chamber method. Indoor Air 9: 268-272 
    21. Rothweiler, H., P. A. Wager, and C. Schlatter. 1992. Volatile organic compounds and some very volatile organic compounds in new and recently renovated buildings in Switzerland. Atmospheric Environment 26: 2219-2225 
    22. Jarnstrom, H., K. Saarela, P. Kalliokoski, and A.-L. Pasanen. Reference values for structure emissions measured on site in new residential buildings in Finland Atmospheric Environment, In press 
    23. ISO 16000-9, 2006a ISO 16000-9, 2006a. Indoor-Air Part 9: Determination of the Emission of Volatile Organic Compounds from Building Products and Furnishings-Emission Test Chamber Method 
    24. ECA-IAQ Report No.8. 1991. Guideline for the characterization of volatile organic compounds emitted from indoor materials and products using small test chambers, Brussels 
    25. CEC-Commission of the European Communities, prENV 13419-2. 1998. Building products-determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds-Part 2: Emission test cell method, Brussels: European Committee for Standardization 
    26. Weschler, C. J. and H. C. Schields. 1997. Potential reactions among indoor air pollutants, Atmospheric Environment 31: 3487-3495 
    27. ECA-IAQ Report No.16. 1995. Determination of VOCs emitted from indoor materials and products - Second inter laboratory comparison of small chamber measurements, Brussels 
    28. ASTM-D5116-97. 1997. Standard guide for smallscale environmental chamber determinations of organic emissions from indoor materials/products 
    29. Kim, S. and H.-J. Kim. 2005c. Comparison of formaldehyde emission from building finishing materials at various temperatures in under heating system; ONDOL. Indoor Air 15:317-325 
    30. Risholm-Sundman, M. and N. Wallin. 1999. Comparison of different laboratory methods for determining the formaldehyde emission from three-layer parquet floors, Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff 57(5): 319-324 
    31. Wolkoff, P., P. A. Clausen, C. K. Wilkins, and G. D. Nielsen. 2000. Formation of strong airway irritants in terpene/ozone mixtures, Indoor Air 10: 82-91 
    32. Uchiyama, S., T. Akimoto, and S.-I. Tanabe. 2001. Emission rate measurement of chemical compounds emitted from the thermal insulating materials, International FLEC Symposium 2001. pp. 110-115 
    33. Bornehag, C.-G. 1991. Indoor Climate in Dalen. Physical measurements in 90 flats at Ensskededalen, Stockholm, Byggforskningsrdet BFR, Stockholm 
    34. Wirtanen, L. 2005. Influence of moisture and substrate on the emission of volatile organic compounds from wall structures, Helsinki university of technology, Espoo. pp. 321 
    35. Brown, S. K. 1999. Chamber assessment of formaldehyde and VOC emissions from woodbased panels. Indoor Air 9: 209-215 
    36. Kim, S. and H.-J. Kim. 2005b. Comparison of standard methods and gas chromatography method in determination of formaldehyde emission from MDF bonded with formaldehyde-based resins. Bioresource Technology 96: 1457-1464 
    37. Tuomaninen, M., A.-L. Pasanen, A. Tuomaninen, J. Liesivuori, and P. Juvonen. 2001. Usefulness of the Finnish classification of indoor climate, construction of indoor climate between two new blocks of flats in Finland. Atmospheric Environment 35: 305-313 
  • 이 논문을 인용한 문헌 (1)

    1. Park, Sang-Bum ; Lee, Min ; Lee, Sang-Min ; Kang, Yeong-Seok 2015. "VOCs Emission Characteristics of Coating Materials for Wood Finishing" 한국가구학회지 = Journal of the Korea furniture society, 26(1): 22~30     

 활용도 분석

  • 상세보기

    amChart 영역
  • 원문보기

    amChart 영역

원문보기

무료다운로드
  • NDSL :
유료다운로드

유료 다운로드의 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 신규 회원가입, 로그인, 유료 구매 등이 필요할 수 있습니다. 해당 사이트에서 발생하는 귀하의 모든 정보활동은 NDSL의 서비스 정책과 무관합니다.

원문복사신청을 하시면, 일부 해외 인쇄학술지의 경우 외국학술지지원센터(FRIC)에서
무료 원문복사 서비스를 제공합니다.

NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 위의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니 담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

이 논문과 함께 출판된 논문 + 더보기