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배추김치의 최적발효 및 저장을 위한 김치냉장고의 자동숙성 시스템 개발
Development of Auto-aging System Built in Kimchi Refrigerator for Optimal Fermentation and Storage of Korean Cabbage Kimchi

노정숙    (부산대학교 식품영양학과 및 김치연구소   ); 서현주    (부산대학교 식품영양학과 및 김치연구소   ); 오정환    (부산대학교 식품영양학과 및 김치연구소   ); 이명주    (삼성전자 시스템가전사업부 냉기개발팀   ); 김명희    (삼성전자 시스템가전사업부 냉기개발팀   ); 최홍식    (부산보건환경연구원   ); 송영옥    (부산대학교 식품영양학과 및 김치연구소  );
  • 초록

    김치의 최적 숙성 및 장기저장을 위한 김치냉장고에서의 발효, 저장조건을 연구하기 위하여 온도별(5, 10, 15, $20^{\circ}C$ )로 김치의 이화학적 ${\cdot}$ 관능적 특성 검사를 하여 S사 김치냉장고의 자동숙성 mode( $23^{\circ}C$ 에서 25시간 후 $-1^{\circ}C$ 자동전환)에서 발효시킨 김치와 비교하였다. 김치 냉장고 초기 발효 온도 설정에 관한 연구결과 발효 적숙기에 도달하는 시간, 적숙기 기간 및 김치 맛을 종합적으로 고려하였을 때, 김치냉장고 초기 발효 온도는, $10-15^{\circ}C$ 가 적절한 것으로 나타났다. 김치냉장고의 초기 발효시간을 결정하기 위하여 $10^{\circ}C$ 와 $15^{\circ}C$ 에서 김치를 산도 $0.4{\pm}0.05$ , $0.6{\pm}0.05$ 그리고 $0.8{\pm}0.05%$ 에 도달할 때까지 발효시킨 후 즉시 $-1^{\circ}C$ 에서 7일간 저장한 후 산도 변화와 김치 맛을 종합적으로 살펴본 결과 특정산도에 도달하는 시간은 $15^{\circ}C$ 가 산도 0.4%에서 $-1^{\circ}C$ 로 저장한 김치의 경우 신맛, 새콤한 맛 그리고 종합적인 평가 점수는 올라갔으며, 덜 익은 맛의 강도가 크게 낮아졌다. 그러나 산도가 0.6% 및 0.8% 에서 $-1^{\circ}C$ 로 저장한 김치의 관능평가의 종합 점수는 낮아졌고, 군덕 맛의 강도는 높아졌다. 저장온도에 대한 실험에서 기존 김치냉장고에서 사용하고 있는 $-1^{\circ}C$ 저장온도는 김치의 미생물의 발육을 완전히 억제하지 못하는 것으로 나타났고 $-2{\pm}0.5^{\circ}C$ 저장온도는 김치가 얼지 않는 최저 온도로 사료된다. 본 연구 결과 배추김치를 김치냉장고에서 자동적으로 발효 ${\cdot}$ 저장할 때 관능적 특성 및 저장기간을 극대화할 수 있는 최적 자동숙성 시스템은 $15^{\circ}C$ 에서 김치의 산도가 0.4%에 도달할 때까지 발효시킨 후 $-2{\pm}0.5^{\circ}C$ 로 온도를 전환하여 저장하는 조건으로 설정하는 것이 가장 바람직한 것으로 생각된다.


    In this study, we examined the conditions for an auto-aging system placed within a kimchi refrigerator for optimal fermentation, and to prolong the storage time of kimchi. Various characteristics of kimchi fermented at different temperatures ( $5-23^{\circ}C$ ) were compared. We observed that the higher the fermentation temperature, the less desirable the overall acceptability of the product. To establish the time point in which to convert the fermentation mode to the storage mode, kimchi was stored at $-1^{\circ}C$ for 1 week once it reached the designated acidity (0.4, 0.6, and 0.8%). The results indicated that the lower the kimchi acidity, the higher the sensory score. The storage temperature of $-1^{\circ}C$ was not low enough to retard microorganism growth completely; however, the kimchi stored at $-2{\pm}0.5^{\circ}C$ became frozen. Accordingly, $15^{\circ}C$ and $-2{\pm}0.5^{\circ}C$ are suggested as the fermentation and storage temperatures for the kimchi refrigerator, respectively. A kimchi acidity of 0.4% can be used as an index for the time point to convert fermentation to storage. Subsequently, the time required for the fermentation course can be calculated based on this.


  • 주제어

    kimchi refrigerator .   auto-aging .   fermentation .   storage .   temperature .   acidity .   sensory evaluation.  

  • 참고문헌 (27)

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  • 이 논문을 인용한 문헌 (16)

    1. Noh, Jeong-Sook ; Kim, Jong-Hyun ; Lee, Myung-Ju ; Kim, Myung-Hee ; Song, Yeong-Ok 2008. "Development of Auto-aging System for the Kimchi Refrigerator for Optimal Fermentation and Storage of Dongchimi" 한국식품과학회지 = Korean journal of food science and technology, 40(6): 661~668     
    2. Bang, Byung-Ho ; Seo, Jeong-Sook ; Jeong, Eun-Ja 2008. "A Method for Maintaining Good Kimchi Quality during Fermentation" 한국식품영양학회지 = The Korean journal of food and nutrition, 21(1): 51~55     
    3. 2008. "" Journal of food science and nutrition, 13(3): 219~224     
    4. Jeong, Eun-Ja ; Seo, Jeong-Sook ; Bang, Byung-Ho 2008. "A Study on Kimchi Development Using Device-Mashed Vice Materials" 한국식품영양학회지 = The Korean journal of food and nutrition, 21(3): 288~292     
    5. 2008. "" Food science and biotechnology, 17(5): 940~946     
    6. Kwak, Hee-Jung ; Jang, Jae-Seon ; Kim, Soon-Mi 2009. "Quality Characteristics of Kimchi with Added Houttuynia cordata" 한국식품영양학회지 = The Korean journal of food and nutrition, 22(3): 332~337     
    7. Choi, Eun-Jung ; Cho, Shin-Ho 2009. "Effects of onion and pear on Kimchi Quality Characteristics during Fermentation" 한국식품조리과학회지 = Korean Journal of Food & Cookery Science, 25(2): 243~251     
    8. Noh, Jeong-Sook ; Kim, Hyun-Ju ; Kwon, Myung-Ja ; Song, Yeong-Ok 2009. "Seasonal Changes in Quality of Chonggak Kimchi Fermented at Different Temperatures" 한국식품영양과학회지 = Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, 38(6): 742~749     
    9. Hwang, In-Guk ; Kim, Ha-Yun ; Hwang, Young ; Yoo, Seon-Mi ; Jeong, Heon-Sang ; Lee, Jun-Soo ; Kim, Hae-Young 2011. "Effects of Mashed Red Pepper on the Quality Characteristics of Kimchi" 한국식품영양과학회지 = Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, 40(12): 1769~1775     
    10. Lee, Eun-Hwa ; Lee, Myung-Ju ; Song, Yeong Ok 2012. "Comparison of Fermentation Properties of Winter Kimchi Stored for 6 Months in a Kimchi Refrigerator Under Ripening Mode or Storage Mode" 한국식품영양과학회지 = Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, 41(11): 1619~1625     
    11. Lee, Eun-Hwa ; Lee, Myung-Ju ; Song, Yeong Ok 2012. "Comparison of Fermentation Properties of Winter Kimchi Stored for 6 Months in a Kimchi Refrigerator Under Ripening Mode or Storage Mode" 한국식품영양과학회지 = Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, 41(11): 1619~1625     
    12. Hwang, In-Guk ; Kim, Ha-Yun ; Hwang, Young ; Jeong, Heon-Sang ; Lee, Jun-Soo ; Kim, Hae-Young ; Yoo, Seon-Mi 2012. "Changes in Quality Characteristics of Kimchi Added with the Fresh Red Pepper (Capsicum Annuum L.)" 한국식품조리과학회지 = Korean Journal of Food & Cookery Science, 28(2): 167~174     
    13. Kim, Yoo-Won ; Han, Seo-Young ; Choi, Hye-Sun ; Han, Gwi-Jung ; Park, Hye-Young 2012. "Effect of Pre-Fermentation Condition on Quality Characteristics of Small Packaged Cabbage Kimchi" 한국식품조리과학회지 = Korean Journal of Food & Cookery Science, 28(4): 391~397     
    14. Park, Ki-Bum ; Kim, Su-Gon ; Yu, Ji-Hyun ; Kim, Ji-Seon ; Kim, Eun-Seon ; Jeon, Jong-In ; Oh, Suk-Heung 2013. "Changes in Fermentation Properties and Ornithine Levels of Baechu Kimchi by Storage Condition" 한국식품영양학회지 = The Korean journal of food and nutrition, 26(4): 945~951     
    15. Jung, Jin-Kyoung ; Song, Kyung-Mo ; Yi, Sung-Hoon ; Kim, Hyo-Jin ; Han, Young-Sook ; Lee, Myung-Ki 2015. "Fermentation Conditions for High Acceptability of Korean Traditional Fermented Beverage Kyejang" 한국식품영양과학회지 = Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, 44(1): 137~144     
    16. Huang, Ying ; Lee, Yoona ; Lee, Bora ; Kim, Mi Young 2016. "Fermentation Characteristics of Low-sodium Kimchi by Kimchi Lactic Acid Bacteria Starters" 한국식품영양학회지 = The Korean journal of food and nutrition, 29(5): 801~807     

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  • 이명주 (4)

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