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임신성 당뇨병 환자의 식습관 및 식이섭취에 관한 환자-대조군 연구
A Case-Control Study of Food Habits and Diet Intakes of Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

지선경   (전주기전대학 식품영양과UU0001130  ); 장학철   (서울대학교 의과대학 내과학교실UU0000691  ); 최혜미   (서울대학교 식품영양학과UU0000691  );
  • 초록

    임신성 당뇨병의 발병에 영향을 미치는 식이 인자를 알아보고자 컴퓨터용 식품섭취 빈도조사지와 설문지 등을 이용하여 임신성 당뇨병의 환자군-대조군 연구를 시행한 결과는 다음과 같다. 임신성 당뇨병군이 대조군보다 연령과 BMI가 높았고, 당뇨병의 가족력이 많았다. 임신전의 식습관은 임신성 당뇨병군이 대조군보다 1일 식사횟수가 적었고, 식사시간이 불규칙하고 식사속도가 빨랐으며 채식을 적게 하고 기름진 음식을 싫어하는 경향이었으며, 식습관점수가 낮았다. 식품섭취빈도법으로 조사한 영양소 섭취량에서는 임신성당뇨병군이 대조군보다 탄수화물의 섭취량이 유의적으로 많았고 단백질의 에너지 섭취비율이 유의적으로 낮았다. 지방의 섭취량에는 두 군간에 차이가 없었으며 임신성 당뇨병군이 대조군보다 단백질과 칼슘, 인, 비타민 B,의 영양밀도가 유의적으로 낮았다. 두 그룹간에 섭취량에 유의적 차이를 보이는 식품 중 쌀, 중국국수, 돼지고기 등은 임신성 당뇨병군에서 대조군보다 많이 섭취하였고, 옥수수, 오징어채, 큰멸치, 수박, 포도, 복숭아, 밤, 땅콩, 호상 요구르트, 치즈, 검정콩, 당근 등은 대조군에서 섭취량이나 섭취빈도가 많았다. 두 군 사이에 섭취량에 유의적 차이를 보이는 음식 중 온면, 시루떡, 햄버거, 돼지고기편육, 삶은 계란 등은 임신성 당뇨병군에서 섭취량이 많았고, 전병, 두부조림, 오징어채무침, 깍두기, 야채샐러드, 김치국, 과일샐러드, 콩밥, 콩조림, 토마토쥬스 등은 대조군에서 섭취량이나 섭취빈도가 많았다. 특히 쌀의 경우에는 임신성 당뇨병군이 대조군보다 섭취량은 많았으나 섭취빈도는 적어 임신성 당뇨병군에서 1회의 섭취분량이 많았던 것으로 생각할 수 있다. 영양소 중에서는 탄수화물이나 에너지의 섭취량이 많을 때 임신성 당뇨병의 odds ratio가 증가하였고, 식품이나 음식은 쌀, 국수, 돼지고기, 온면, 시루떡, 햄버거, 삶은 계란, 돼지고기편육 등의 섭취량이 많을 때 임신성 당뇨병의 odds ratio가 증가하였다. 상관관계의 분석결과 에너지 섭취량, 탄수화물 섭취량 등이 혈액의 포도당농도와 상관관계가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 이상으로 본 연구 결과를 종합해 볼 때 임신성 당뇨병에 영향을 미치는 식이 인자는 지방보다는 탄수화물의 섭취량으로 생각되어지며 단백질을 포함한 식사의 질과 바람직하지 않은 식습관이 영향을 미칠 수 있음을 생각해 볼 수 있다.


    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance discovered or onset during pregnancy and attention is needed because of increased risk of perinatal morbidties and higher incidence of diabetes afterward. This study was performed to identify dietary factors associated with the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Developed food frequency questionnaire containing 192 food items were used to assess nutritional status of 246 control subjects and 104 GDM subjects. Food habits of subjects were examined in the questionnaire. The more irregularity and less variety of meal were found in GDM group compared to control group and GDM group tended to eat rapidly and do not like vegetables and greasy foods. Total score of food habits in GDM was lower than control group, which suggests that GDM group have undesirable food habits. Mean daily energy and carbohydrate intakes of GDM group were higher than those of control group, and percent energy from protein was significantly higher in control. Nutrient density of protein, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin BI of GDM group was significantly lower than those of control group. Therefore dietary quality of GDM group was lower than that of control group. Odds ratio for GDM was high when energy and carbohydrate intakes were high. And when the intakes of rice, noodle, shiruduk, hamburger, boiled egg, steamed pork shank were high, the odds ratio for GDM was high. These results indicate that the amount and frequencies of several foods and dish items were related with the occurrence of GDM subjects. On the whole, GDM subjects consumed more cereals and less vegetables and less legumes. From these results, pregnant women with GDM tended to have unhealthy food habits, and carbohydrate intake was important dietary factors on the onset of GDM.


  • 주제어

    gestational diabetes mellitus .   food frequency questionnaire .   cabohydrate intake .   food habits .   odds ratio.  

  • 참고문헌 (33)

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