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韓國營養學會誌 = The Korean journal of nutrition. v.41 no.1, 2008년, pp.65 - 76   피인용횟수: 24

광주지역 저소득층 여자노인의 영양상태와 건강위험요인에 관한 연구
Nutritional Status and Health Risks of Low Income Elderly Women in Gwangju Area

양은주   (호남대학교 조리과학과UU0015948  ); 방희명   (조선대학교 행정복지학부UU0001180  );
  • 초록

    본 연구는 저소득층 노인을 대상으로 하여 식생활 실태 및 건강상태를 조사하여 노인의 건강과 영양상태의 상호연관성 및 이에 영향을 미치는 위험 요인을 파악하고자 실시되었다. 조사는 광주광역시에 거주하는 저소득층 여자노인 92명을 대상으로 하였으며, 조사대상자를 연령에 따라 세 그룹 ( $65{\sim}74$ 세, $75{\sim}84$ 세, 85세 이상)으로 체위, 혈액, 영양상태 등을 비교하였으며, Nutritional Screening Initiative (NSI) 점수에 따라 $NSI{\leq}3$ 은 영양 양호군, NSI > 3은 영양 위험군으로 구분하여 영양위험정도에 따른 식생활 관련 건강요인을 비교하였으며 연구결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 1) 본 조사대상자의 평균 연령은 79.0세이었으며, 사회경제적 수준이 매우 낮았으며, 치아건강상태 (70.7%) 및 경제적인 이유 (76.1%)로 음식섭취가 부실하였으며 혼자거동하기 힘든 여자 노인의 비율이 48.9%인데, 63.0%의 노인이 혼자 식사한다고 응답하여 저소득층 여자 노인의 사회경제적 위험 요인이 영양상태를 더욱 악화시키는 것으로 조사되었다. 2) 본 조사 대상자가 앓고 있는 주요 질병으로는 고혈압(42.9%), 관절염 및 신경통(33.0%), 당뇨병 (15.4%), 심혈관계 질환 (8.8%), 소화기계 질환 (8.8%) 등의 순이었다. 전체 여자 노인의 44.6%가 비만하였으며, 고혈압, 당뇨병, 심혈관계 질환 중 1개 이상의 질병을 보유한 노인이 53.3%, 대사 증후군을 보유한 노인이 49.3%로서 여자 노인의 건강상태가 전반적으로 불량한 것 판단되었다. 3) 조사대상자의 평균 체중은 54.5, 신장은 147.1cm로서 한국인 영양권장량설정을 위한 체위 기준치와 비교할 때 체중은 더 많은 반면 신장은 낮은 것으로 조사되었으며, 연령증가에 따라 체중과 체단백질이 감소한 반면 체지방은 감소되지 않았고, 체지방 비율이 40.0%, 허리둘레가 87.7cm에 달하였으며, BMI가 25.1 $kg/m^2$ 으로 전체적으로 비만한 경향을 나타내었다. 4) 연령에 따라 혈압에 유의적인 차이가 없었으며, 혈청알부민을 제외하고는 혈액의 지질성분, 면역성분, 항산화 성분에서 연령별로 유의적인 차이가 없었다. 여자 노인의 평균 수축기 혈압 143.0 mmHg, 공복 혈당은 119.7mg/dl로서 노인의 중요한 건강 문제는 고혈압, 당뇨 등임을 확인할 수 있으며, TNF- ${\alpha}$ 수준이 높아 노년기 염증 반응 증가를 시사하였다. 5) 조사대상자의 영양상태는 매우 불량하였으며, 연령증가에 따라 영양섭취 실태가 더 불량해지는 경향을 나타내고 있으나 연령에 따른 유의적인 차이는 없었다. NSI 점수를 기준으로 하여, 영양 위험군 (NSI>3)에 비해 영양 양호군 $(NSI{\leq}3)$ 으로 구분된 노인의 하루 3회 이상의 식사 비율이 높았으며, 건강 인지도가 더 좋고, 우울증이 적었으며 운동 실시율이 높고, 당뇨 유병률이 낮았다. 6) 영양섭취 실태와 면역, 염증반응, 항산화 능과의 상관관계를 살펴 본 결과, 혈청의 IL-6와 $TNF-{\alpha}$ 가 영양상태와 유의적인 상관관계를 나타내어 항 염증성 인자보다는 염증유발인자가 노인의 영양상태와 관련이 있었으며, IL-2, TAS, 공복 혈당 등이 체위와 유의적인 관계가 있어 노인의 영양상태나 체위가 염증반응을 일으켜 노인의 건강에 영향을 미칠 수 있는 것으로 생각된다. 결론적으로, 연령이 증가함에 따라 생리적, 심리적, 사회경제적 요인이 노인의 영양상태에 복합적으로 작용하여, 영양불균형을 초래하고, 만성질환이 있는 경우에는 영양상태가 더욱 불


    This study was performed to identify association between nutritional status and health risks of the elderly. This was a cross-sectional study involving low income elderly women in Gwangju, Korea ( ${\geq}$ 65y, n = 92). Socio-demographics, life style characteristics, health conditions, dietary intakes based on 24h-recall method, anthropometric measures, and clinical biochemistry parameters were examined. Anthropometric and clinical parameters included wt, ht, waist, hip, body protein, body fat, abdominal fat, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, albumin, hemoglobin, hematocrit, fasting blood glucose, ferritin, IL-2, IL-6, TNF- ${\alpha}$ , CRP, TAS, TBARS, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. The subjects were divided into three groups based on age (65-74y, 75-84y, 85y ${\leq}$ ) and were divided into two groups according to the sum of the Nutrition Screening Initiative (NSI) checklist score (adequate nutritional status, NSI score ${\leq}$ 3; at risk of malnutrition, NSI score >3). Mean and frequency of variables were estimated. Analysis of Variance, Tukey test, Chi-square test, and Multiple linear regression analyses were performed. Mean BMI and body fat were 25.1 $kg/m^2$ and 40.0%, respectively. However, for over 80% of subjects, the intakes of energy, fiber, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, Ca, K, and Zn were less than the Korean DRI (EAR or AI). The subjects who had lower NSI score tended to have better health status, eat meals frequently, have less depression, and exercise regularly. The subjects who had higher NSI score tended to have tooth problems, to eat alone most of time, and to be physically unable to cook or feed. Serum IL-6 and TNF- ${\alpha}$ were significantly related with nutritional status which suggested higher tendency of inflammatory response. Serum IL-2, TAS, and glucose were significantly correlated with body fat (%) or abdominal fat (%). These results suggest that improving the nutritional status, increasing regular exercise, maintaining normal weight are beneficial to health care of low income elderly women.


  • 주제어

    Korean elderly .   nutritional status .   nutrition screening initiative .   body fat .   inflammatory response.  

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